Articles

Magnesium

Introduction

Magnesium is involved in the interaction of more than 300 enzyme reactions in the body. It is necessary for the transmission of nerve impulses, temperature regulation, detoxification, energy production and the formation of healthy bones and teeth. It is also vital for cardiovascular health.

A U.S. Department of Agriculture study found that 75 percent of Americans do not get an adequate supply of magnesium in their diet. This is probably due to the absence of magnesium in many processed foods and the depletion of magnesium from agricultural soils in the U.S.

Good food sources include nuts, legumes, cereal grains, and dark green leafy vegetables.

Dosage Info

Dosage Range

Generally 400-1500mg a day. Depending on the dosage form and the magnesium salt used, doses as high as 5 to 6 grams have been used under intense medial supervision. (1) , (2)

Most Common Dosage

400mg daily.

Magnesium carbonate contains 40-43.5% Magnesium oxide and Magnesium trisilicate powder contains >20% Magnesium oxide

Dosage Forms

Tablets, capsules, powder, sprays, liquids, and injectables (Rx only).

Interactions and Depletions

Interactions

Depletions

Reported Uses

Magnesium is involved in a long list of body functions. First, it is required for metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. As part of its role in the activity of enzymes, it is involved in the transmission of nerve impulses and muscle contractions.

Magnesium plays a crucial role in maintaining the health of the heart and cardiovascular system. It helps thin the blood, relaxes blood vessels, lessens the risk of heart attack and more. (3) , (4) It also moderately reduces blood pressure. (5) , (6)

As a key player in calcium metabolism, magnesium is important for the health and development of bones and teeth. It helps maintain the integrity of bones and helps bind calcium to tooth enamel, thus creating a barrier to tooth decay.

Magnesium has targeted applications in no fewer than 12 health disorders. It may reduce the risk of developing asthma and is commonly used as part of an overall treatment program for asthmatics. (7)

As mentioned, magnesium is used to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases. (8) , (9) , (10) Magnesium supplementation may increase the survival rate of patients with congestive heart failure and it can help lower blood pressure. (11) , (12) , (13) One study demonstrated that induced magnesium depletion in postmenopausal women could result in poor cardiovascular functioning during exercise, including a greater need for oxygen and energy and an increased heart rate. (14)

Magnesium is also used to support health in people with diabetes, (15) , (16) kidney stones, (17) osteoporosis, (18) PMS symptoms, (19) muscle cramps (20) and migraine headaches. (21) , (22) Its energy-boosting qualities have been used to treat cases of chronic fatigue syndrome. (23)

Toxicities & Precautions

Introduction

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General

This dietary supplement is considered safe when used in accordance with proper dosing guidelines.

Health Conditions

If you have kidney disease, talk to your doctor before taking this dietary supplement.

Side Effects

Occasional side effects reported with large doses of this dietary supplement include diarrhea. It may be necessary to reduce the dose of this dietary supplement. Tell your doctor if these side effects become severe or do not go away.

Pregnancy / Breast Feeding

To date, the medical literature has not reported any adverse effects related to fetal development during pregnancy or to infants who are breast-fed. Proper nutrition is essential during pregnancy for the healthy development of the fetus. Numerous vitamins and minerals are a vital part of proper nutrition. If you are pregnant, think you might be pregnant, trying to get pregnant, or breast-feeding an infant, talk to your healthcare professional about supplementing your diet with appropriate vitamins and minerals.

Age Limitations

To date, the medical literature has not reported any adverse effects specifically related to the use of this dietary supplement in children. Vitamins and minerals are an essential part of proper growth and development. Talk to your healthcare professional about the appropriate use of vitamins and minerals in children. Do not use any vitamin or mineral in children under 2 years of age unless first discussed with your healthcare professional.

References

  1. View Abstract: Brewer RP, Parra A, Lynch J, Chilukuri V, Borel CO. Cerebral blood flow velocity response to magnesium sulfate in patients after subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. Jul2001;13(3):202-206.
  2. View Abstract: Harnett MJ, Datta S, Bhavani-Shankar K. The effect of magnesium on coagulation in parturients with preeclampsia. Anesth Analg. May2001;92(5):1257-1260.
  3. Gaby AR. Magnesium: An Inexpensive, Safe, and Effective Treatment for Cardiovascular Disease. J Advancement Med. 1986;1:179-81.
  4. View Abstract: Kh R, et al. Effect of oral magnesium supplementation on blood pressure, platelet aggregation and calcium handling in deoxycorticosterone acetate induced hypertension in rats. J Hypertens. Jul2000;18(7):919-26.
  5. View Abstract: Moore TJ. The Role of Dietary Electrolytes in Hypertension. J Am Coll Nutr. 1989;8(Suppl):68S-80S.
  6. View Abstract: Kh R, et al. Effect of oral magnesium supplementation on blood pressure, platelet aggregation and calcium handling in deoxycorticosterone acetate induced hypertension in rats. J Hypertens. Jul2000;18(7):919-26.
  7. View Abstract: Skotnicki AB, et al. The Role of Magnesium in the Pathogenesis and Therapy of Bronchial Asthma. Przegl Lek. 1997;54(9):630-03. Review.
  8. Gaby AR. Magnesium: An Inexpensive, Safe, and Effective Treatment for Cardiovascular Disease. J Advancement Med. 1986;1:179-81.
  9. View Abstract: Kh R, et al. Effect of oral magnesium supplementation on blood pressure, platelet aggregation and calcium handling in deoxycorticosterone acetate induced hypertension in rats. J Hypertens. Jul2000;18(7):919-26.
  10. View Abstract: Al-Delaimy WK, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB. Magnesium intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men. J Am Coll Nutr. Feb2004;23(1):63-70.
  11. View Abstract: Gottlieb SS, et al. Prognostic Importance of the Serum Magnesium Concentration in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. Oct1990;16(4):827-31.
  12. View Abstract: Moore TJ. The Role of Dietary Electrolytes in Hypertension. J Am Coll Nutr. 1989;8(Suppl):68S-80S.
  13. View Abstract: Kh R, et al. Effect of oral magnesium supplementation on blood pressure, platelet aggregation and calcium handling in deoxycorticosterone acetate induced hypertension in rats. J Hypertens. Jul2000;18(7):919-26.
  14. View Abstract: Lukaski HC, Nielsen FH. Dietary magnesium depletion affects metabolic responses during submaximal exercise in postmenopausal women. J Nutr. May2002;132(5):930-5.
  15. View Abstract: Elamin A, et al. Magnesium and Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. Nov1990;10(3):203-09.
  16. View Abstract: Lal J, Vasudev K, Kela AK, Jain SK. Effect of oral magnesium supplementation on the lipid profile and blood glucose of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Assoc Physicians India. Jan2003;51:37-42.
  17. View Abstract: Johansson G, et al. Effects of Magnesium Hydroxide in Renal Stone Disease. J Am Coll Nutr. 1982;1(2):179-85.
  18. View Abstract: Angus RM, et al. Dietary Intake and Bone Mineral Density. Bone Miner. Jul1988;4(3):265-77.
  19. View Abstract: Facchinetti F, et al. Oral Magnesium Successfully Relieves Premenstrual Mood Changes. Obstet Gynecol. Aug1991;78(2):177-81.
  20. View Abstract: Riss P, et al. Clinical Aspects and Treatment of Calf Muscle Cramps During Pregnancy. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. May1983;43(5):329-31.
  21. Weaver K. Magnesium and Its Role in Vascular Reactivity and Coagulation. Contemp Nutr. 1987;12(3):1.
  22. View Abstract: Mauskop A, et al. Role of magnesium in the pathogenesis and treatment of migraines. Clin Neurosci. 1998;5(1):24-7.
  23. View Abstract: Cox IM, et al. Red Blood Cell Magnesium and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Lancet. Mar1991;337(8744):757-60.