Antidesma ghaesembilla

Synonyms

Antidesma ghaesembilla var ghaesembilla Mull.Arg.; Antidesma ghaesembilla var paniculatum (Willd.) Mull.Arg; Anitdesma ghaesembilla var. vestitum (C.Presl.) Mull.Arg.; Anitdesma paniculatum Willd.; Antidesma pubescens, Roxb.; Antidesma vestitum C. Presl. [1]

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia Balong Ayam, Gonciak, Guncak, Kuncor Puteh, Kesambi, Sekincak (Peninsula Malaysia);  Andarupis, Anjarubi, Anjuripes, Indarupis, Ondurupis, Tandurupis or Tendrupis, Borotindik, Dempul, Guchek, Gunchin, Gunipot, Kakapal (Sabah)
Indonesia Dempul Lelet,  Ande-ande, Andi, Ki valot, Onjam, Sepat, Wuni dedek, Wuni jaran dawuk (Java),  Kutikata gunung (Ambon); Lonang (Kalimantan); Onyam (Sunda);  Banoton, Bohneh, Bohnei, Bungorak, Kucir, Mekremie, Monton, Tingiran puni. (Sumatra); Kunfunu (Mollo), Luna, Piras, Wuler ku or Wuler satar. Moluccas: Babine igo, Bidara, Kutikata-gunung, O lalade (Tobelorese) (Lesser Sunda);  Kwaik (Bian) (Irian Jaya)
China Fang ye wu yue cha
India Yangu, Jamrudi
Laos Hmauz Nooyz
Papua New Guinea Fair (Wanigela), Sigoreh (Orokaiva), Sila, Tagi (Onjob).
Thailand Mangmao (Chanthaburi); Mao khai pla (Chon Buri); Mao Thung (Chumphon)
Vietnam Choi moi, Chop moi, Com nguoi
Cambodia Tarm Eu Greng
Philippines Binayuyu (Tagalog); Arosep (Ilokano); Tubo-tubo (Bikol), Anyam, Arosep (Il.), Bananyo (Tagbanua), Barunasi, Baso-baso, Bignay-pugo, Binayuyo, Bignai-pogo, Bignayoyo (Tagbanua), Dangol, Grumun, Holat-baguis, Imian, Inang or Iniam, Kabogbog (Tagbanua).
Burma Pyee-sin
Cambodia Dangkiep k’daam
Bangladesh Khudijam
Australia May-kamw (Aborigines); Black Current Tree (English)
Other places Buembilla, Jana-pa-laseru, Jondri, Khudi jamb, Limtoa, Mata sure, Nuniari, Polari, Pollai, Pulsur, Pyizin, Timtoa, Umtoa [2][5][6][7][8][12]

General Information

Description

Antidesma ghaesembilla is a member of the Phyllanthaceae (Euphorbiaceae) family. It is a small deciduous tree which can grow up to 16m tall with light grey bark, branchelets, young leaves and inflorescence soft-tomentose. The leaves are alternate, simple, penni-veined with secondary veins looping, usually hairy below oval or obovate, measures 6-11cm long. The petioles are short, main lateral nerves 4-6 pairs, stipules subulate, as long as petiole.  The male flowers are yellowish green, many flowers grouped into much branched spikes. The sepals are usually 5, sometimes 6 or 7 obovate with 4-5, 2.0-2.5mm long stamens with filaments free, inserted between disc-lobes; disc 4-6-lobed; rudimentary ovary obconical, measures 0.7mm long. The female flowers are many flowers grouped into much branched racemes with very short pedicels and sepals as in male. The discs are annular with ovary ovoid, measures ca. 1mm in diameter with 3 styles and a terminal. The drupes are small, dark purple when ripe and pulp is agreeably acid.[1]

Plant Part Used

Stems, barks, leaves, flowers and fruits [3-6]

Chemical Constituents

Glycoside, tannin, resin, phenolic compound and polyprenols. [8][9][13]

Traditional Used:

A. ghaesembilla has been recognized as being medicinal and a food plant. One of the common uses of A. ghaesembilla is to treat headaches in several communities especially Chinese.[4][6][8] However, in Mao tribe from Vietnam, they find the bark of the tree is most efficacious.[14]

The leaves are used in the treatment of fever. Some Southeast Asian communities also use the shoot as vegetable and also as a spice in their dishes.[3] Besides, the decoction of the leaves is to be used as blood nourishment in Northern Thai community, while the Dao tribe of Vietnam takes the leaves and bark for cough and rheumatism.[10][14]

The stem of the A. ghaesembilla is a remedy for menstrual disorder amongst in China and Hong Kong. [4][6] In Bangladesh the lactating women consumes the leaves to enhance breast milk production.[8]

The fruit which is called “blackcurrent” due to its resemblance to the temperate fruit in colour and taste when ripe is much savoured by children and sought when in season. There are communities that make jam out of the fruit when in abundance. As medicine, the fruit is used as a purgative.[3][4][6][8]

A community in Southern Thailand found the flowers is effective in relieving herpes simplex.[11]
In Cambodia A. ghaesembilla is used to treat stomachache.[12]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology


Antioxidant activity
The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the methanol extract of A. ghaesembilla showed moderate to good activity in a dose dependant manner. The IC50 value was 632.5µg/mL. The Cupric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (CUPRAC) was good increase and this reducing activity is probably due to the presence of reductones in the extract.[8]

Antibacterial activity
In a dose of 1200mg/mL the methanol extract was able to minimally inhibit the growth of the following bacteria:
Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholera, Bacillus cereus, Shigella sonnei and Bacillus megaterium.[8]

Cytotoxic activity
Based on the Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay, the methanol extract of A.ghaesembilla was showed a notable cytotoxic activity.[8]

Toxicities

The LC50 of the methanol extract of the whole plant was found to be 25µg/ml in the Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay.[8]

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

Since the stem of A. ghaesembilla is used traditionally to stimulate menstruation, we should be careful when considering it’s used in pregnant women for any purpose.

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

References

  1. John Lindsay Steward. The Forest Flora of North-West and Central India. Wm. H. Allen & Co London; 1874. p. 446.
  2. Priyadi, H. Takao, G. Rahmawati, I. Supriyanto, B. Ikbal Nursal, W. Rahman. Five Hundred Plant Species in Gunung Halimun, Salak National Park, West Java. Center for International Forestry Research Bogor Barat; 2010. p.124.
  3. Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertner. [cited 2012 March 27]. Available from: http://www.proseanet.org/prosea/e-prosea_detail.php?frt=&id=1575
  4. Hong Kong Flora and Vegetation. Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn. [cited 2012 March 28]. Available from: http://www.hkflora.com/v2/leaf/euphor_show_plant.php?plantid=1012
  5. The Wood Explorer. Antidesma ghaesembilla. [cited 2012 March 28]. Available from: http://www.thewoodexplorer.com/maindata/we1282.html#Scientific_Name
  6. Flora of China. Antidesma ghaesembilla  [cited 2012 March 28]. Available from: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=242303572
  7. National Herbarium Nederland. Antidesma. [cited 2012 March 27]. Available from: http://www.nationaalherbarium.nl/euphorbs/specA/Antidesma.htm
  8. Md. Razibul H, Md. Mominur R, Kaiser H, Md. Obayed R, Mohd Aktar S. Phytochemical Screeing, Cytotoxicity, Antioxidant Capacity and Antibacterial Potentiality of Methanol Extract of Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 5(2): 69 – 74, 2011
  9. Nazarudeen A. Nutritional composition of some lesser-known fruits used by the ethnic communities and local folks of Kerala. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. 2010; 9(2):398–403.
  10. Siriwan S, Siraprapha P, Chitraporn T, Suvit S. Ethnobotany in Bung Khong Long Non-Hunting Area, Notheast Thailand. Kasetsart J. (Nat. Sci). 2005; 39: 519–533.
  11. Wongsatit C. Medicinal Plants in the Khok Pho District, Pattani Province (Thailand). Thai Journal of Phytopharmacy. 2005; 12(2).
  12. Pauline L, Hanitra R, Nicolas S, Toun V. The contribution of wild medicinal plants towards poverty alleviation and health improvements: a case study in two villages in Mondulkiri Province, Cambodia. Cambodian Journal of Natural History. 2011; (1): 29–39.
  13. Andrzej M, Ewa C, Le XC, Tran TB, Ewa S, Tadeusz C. The Search for Polyprenols in dedroflora of Vietnam. Acta Biochimica Polonica. 2007; 54(4): 727–732.
  14. Hoang VS. Indigenous Knowledge of Muang and Dao Ethnic Minority Groups in Ba Vi National Park Vietnam. The Rufford Small Grants Foundation . Available from: http://www.ruffordsmallgrants.org/files/Detailed Final%20Report_11.doc