Clerodendrum inerme

Synonyms

Volkameria inermis Linn., Volkameria commersonii Poir., Clerodendron commersoni Spreng., Volkameria mereifolium Wall. [3]

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia: Bunga Pawang, Gambir Laut
English: Garden Quinine
India: Kundali, Kshudragnimantha (Sanskrit); Benjuen, Bonjoi (Bengal); Dariajai (Gujerat); Binjoam, Sangan-kuppi, Chhoti-arni (Hindi); Nirnotijil (Malayalam)l Pinasangam-koppi (Tamil); Pishinika, Utichettu, Erup-pichha (Telagu)
China: Ku-lang-shu, San Fu Mun
Hong Kong: Foo-long-shu
Japan: Ibota-kusagi
French: Volkameria
South Pacific Islands:

Verevere (Fiji); Aloalo Tai (Samoa); Tutu Hina (Tonga); Lodigao (Guam; Ilau, Ula (Ponape) [1] [3] [4]

General Information

Description

Clerodendrum inerme is a member of the Verbenaceae family. It is an evergreen sprawling shrub that could reach up to 2m tall. The stems are woody and smooth. The leaves are opposite, simple, ovate to elliptical, acute to acuminate tip, with entire margins. They are green and slightly shiny on the upper surface. The inflorescence are a cyme or umbel with 3 flowers joined at a common base point. The corolla is white, fused with 5 lobes. There are four stamens, reddish to purple and upwardly curved. The fruits are obovoid, 1-1.5cm long and green turning black upon ripening. [18] 

Plant Part Used

Dried bark from root and stem and fresh or dried leaves [1]

Chemical Constituents

2-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxylphenyl) ethyl-O-2",3"-diacetyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)-4-O-(E)-feruloyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside; 3-O-galactopyranosyl-(24b)-ethylcholesta-4,22-25-triene; 4alpha-methyl-24beta-ethyl-5alpha-cholesta-14; 11-pentacosanone; 14,15-dihydro-15 beta-methoxy-3-epicaryoptin; 14,15-dihydro-15-hydroxy-3-epicaryoptin; 15-methoxy-14,15-dihydro-3-epicaryoptin; 22E-trien-3beta-ol; 24-ethylcholesterol; 24-ethyl-22-dehydrocholesterol; 24-methyllathosterol; 24-methylcholestanol; 24-methyl-22-dehydrocholesterol; 25-dien-3beta-ol; acacetin; apigenin; apigenin 7,4’-dimethyl ether; beta-amyrin; betulin; campneoside I; cirsimaritin; clerodermic acid; clerodendrins B – C, cleroinermin, dehydroroyleanone; friedelin; inermes A, B; inerminoside A, A1, B, C, D [1 – 2]; isoverbascoside; lup-1,5,20(29)-trien-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside; melittoside; monomelittoside; n-octacosane; pectrolinarigenin; royleanone; salvigenin; sammangaosides A, B and C; scutellarinl 4-methylscutellarin; sorbifolin; verbascoside. [1] [4] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13]

Traditional Used:

C. inerme is considered atonic, febrifuge and alterative.  

Inflammatory conditions

The plant had been found useful in treating rheumatoid arthritis, lumbago, sciatica, hepatitis, and also in cases of scrofulous and venereal diseases. The pounded leaves are applied over buboes to effect healing.

Other uses 

In China it has been reported that C. inerme is used to treat gastritis secondary to fish and shrimp poisoning, malaria, hepatosplenomegaly, ringworm and traumatic injury. In India the leaves are used to treat reminnent and intermittent fevers, while juice expressed from the leaf is given for relieve of muscular pains and stiffness of legs (in tetanus). A bath prepared from the leaves is recommended for treatment of mania and itches. [1] [2] [5] 

In the South Pacific Islands various parts of the plant had been used as an abortifacient. Some considered it as a potent contraceptive. [4]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

Hepatoprotective activity

The ethanolic extract of the leaves of C. inerme proved to have hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 induced liver damage in Swiss albino rats. This extract was able to decrease serum enzymes alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and significantly increase gluthathione level. [14] 

Anticancer activity

The chemoprotective potential of C. inerme is exhibited in the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves. This is evident by the ability of this extract to inhibit tumour formation in DMBA-painted animals. It is attributed to the potent antilipidperoxidative effect and improved antioxidant defence system exhibited by the extract. [15] [16]

Toxicities

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

It would not be wise to use this plant for whatever reason during pregnancy since it has been used to induce abortion in the islands of South Pacific. [4]

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

It was reported that a 13 year old girl with chronic motor tic disorder refractory to multiple anti-tic therapies was given crude leaf extract of C. inerme. She showed dramatic improvement and remission with no side effects being observed during follow up of more than 2 years. [17]

Read More

  1) Botanical Info

References

  1. Kimura T., But PPH., Sung CK., Han BH., International Collation of Traditional and Folk Medicine Northeast Asia Volume 4 Part 4 World Scientific Publication Singapore pg. 95 – 96.
  2. Khare CP., Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary, Springer, Berlin 2007, pg. 159 – 160.
  3. Merrill ED., Loureiro’s “Flora Cochinchinensis” Transactions Volume 24 Pt. 2, American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia 1935, pg. 337.
  4. Cambie RC., Brewis A., Anti-Fertility Plants of the Pacific CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood 1997, pg. 149 – 150.
  5. Panda H., Handbook on Medicinal Herbs with Uses, National Institute of Industrial Research, New Delhi 2004, pg. 359. 
  6. Akihisa T, Matsubara Y, Ghosh P, Thakur S, Tamura T, Matsumoto T. Sterols of some Clerodendrum species (Verbenaceae): occurrence of the 24 alpha- and 24 beta-epimers of 24-ethylsterols lacking a delta 25-bond. Steroids. 1989 Mar-May;53(3-5):625-38.
  7. Caliş I, Hosny M, Yürüker A, Wright AD, Sticher O. Inerminosides A and B, two novel complex iridoid glycosides from Clerodendrum inerme. J Nat Prod. 1994 Apr;57(4):494-500.
  8. Caliş I, Hosny M, Yürüker A. Inerminosides A1, C and D, three iridoid glycosides from Clerodendrum inerme. Phytochemistry. 1994 Nov;37(4):1083-5.
  9. Kanchanapoom T, Kasai R, Chumsri P, Hiraga Y, Yamasaki K. Megastigmane and iridoid glucosides from Clerodendrum inerme. Phytochemistry. 2001 Sep;58(2):333-6.
  10. Pandey R, Verma RK, Singh SC, Gupta MM. 4alpha-methyl-24beta-ethyl-5alpha-cholesta-14,25-dien-3beta-ol and 24beta-ethylcholesta-5, 9(11), 22E-trien-3beta-ol, sterols from Clerodendrum inerme. Phytochemistry. 2003 Jun;63(4):415-20.
  11. Pandey R, Verma RK, Gupta MM. Neo-clerodane diterpenoids from Clerodendrum inerme. Phytochemistry. 2005 Mar;66(6):643-8.
  12. Nan H, Wu J, Zhang S. A new phenylethanoid glycoside from Clerodendrum inerme. Pharmazie. 2005 Oct;60(10):798-9.
  13. Parveen M, Khanam Z, Ali M, Rahman SZ. A novel lupene-type triterpenic glucoside from the leaves of Clerodendrum inerme. Nat Prod Res. 2010;24(2):167-76.
  14. Gopal N, Sengottuvelu S. Hepatoprotective activity of Clerodendrum inerme against CCl4 induced hepatic injury in rats. Fitoterapia. 2008 Jan;79(1):24-6. Epub 2007 Aug 9.
  15. Manoharan S, Kavitha K, Senthil N, Renju GL. Evaluation of anticarcinogenic effects of Clerodendron inerme on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Singapore Med J. 2006 Dec;47(12):1038-43.
  16. Renju GL, Manoharan S, Balakrishnan S, Senthil N. Chemopreventive and antilipidperoxidative potential of Clerodendron inerme (L) Gaertn in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Pak J Biol Sci. 2007 May 1;10(9):1465-70.
  17. Fan PC, Huang WJ, Chiou LC. Intractable chronic motor tics dramatically respond to Clerodendrum inerme (L) Gaertn. J Child Neurol. 2009 Jul;24(7):887-90.
  18. Clerodendrum inerme (http://www.hear.org/starr/hiplants/reports/pdf/clerodendrum_inerme.pdf) Accessed on 27th August 2012.