Carissa carandas

Synonyms

Arduina brownie K. Schum; Arduina campenonii Drake; Arduina edulis (Forssk.) Spreng; Arduina inermis (Vahl.) K. Schum; Arduina laxiflora (Benth.) K. Schum; Arduina xylopicron (Thouars) Baill.; Antura edulis Forssk; Antura hadiensis J.F. Gmel nom illeg; Cabucala brachyantha Pichon; Carandas edulis (Forssk.) Hiern; Carissa axilaris Roxb.; Carissa brownii F. Muell. nom. illeg.; Carissa browmii var. angustifolia Kempe; Carissa brownii var. ovata (R.Br.) Maiden & Betche nom. inval.; Carissa campenoii (Drake) Palacky; Carissa carandas Lodd. sensu auct.; Carissa carandas var. paucinervia (A.DC) Bedd.; Carissa cochinchinensis Pierre ex Pit.; Carissa comorensis (Pichon) Markgr.; Carissa congesta Wight; Carissa carandas var. congesta (Wight) Bedd.; Carissa coriacea Wall. ex, G. Don; Carissa cornifolia Juab. & Spach.; Carissa dalzellii Bedd; Carissa densiflora Baker; Carissa densiflora var. microphylla Danguy ex. Lecomte; Carissa diffusa Roxb.; Carissa dulcis Schumach. & Thornn.; Carissa edulis (Forssk.) Vahl; Carissa edulis f. nummularis (Pichon) Markgr.; Carissa edulis f. pubescens (A.DC) Pichon; Carissa edulis subsp. madagascariensis (Thouars) Pichon; Carissa edulis var. ambungana Pichon; Carissa edulis var. comorensis Pichon; Carissa edulis subsp. continentalis Pichon; Carissa edulis var. densiflora (Baker) Pichon; Carissa edulis var. horrida (Pichon) Markgr.; Carissa edulis var. lucubea Pichon; Carissa edulis var major Stapf.; Carissa edulis var. microphylla (danguy ex Lecomte); Carissa edulis var. nummularis Pichon; Carissa edulis var. revolute (Scott-Elliot) Markgr.; Carissa edulis var. sechellensis (Baker) Pichon; Carissa edulis var. septentrionalis Pichon; Carissa edulis var. subtrinervia Pichon; Carissa edulis var. tomentosa (A. Rich) Stapt. nom. illeg.; Carissa gangetica Stapf. ex. Gamble; Carissa hirsute Roth.; Carissa horrida Pichon; Carissa inermis Vahl; Carissa lanceolata Dalzell nom. illeg.; Carissa lanceolata R.Br.; Carissa laotica Pit.; Carissa laotica var. ferruginea Kerr.; Carissa laxiflora Benth.; Carissa macrophylla Wall ex. G. Don; Carissa madagascariensis Thouars; Carissa mitis Heynth ex. A.DC.; Carissa obovata Markgr.; Carissa oleoides Markgr.; Carissa opaca Stapf.ex Haines; Carissa ovata R. Br.; Carissa ovata var. pubescens F.M. Bailey; Carissa ovata var. stolonifera F.M. Bailey; Carissa papuana Markgr.; Carissa paucinervia A.DC.; Carissa pilosa Schinz nom. illeg.; Carissa pubescens A.DC; Carissa revolute Scott-Elliot; Carissa richardiana Jaub. & Spach.; Carissa scabra R.Br.; Carissa sechellensis Baker; Carissa septentrionalis (Pichon) Markgr.; Carissa spinarum Lodd. ex. A.DC. nom. illeg.; Carissa stolonifera (F.M. Bailley) F.M.Bailley ex. Perrot & Vogt. nom inval.; Carissa suavissima Bedd. ex Hook.f.; Carissa tomentosa A. Rich. nom illeg.; Carissa velutina Domin; Carissa villosa Roxb.; Carissa xylopicron Thouars; Carissa yunnanensis Tsiang P.T. Li; Damnacanthus esquirolii H. Lev; Jasminonerium densiflorum (Baker) Kuntze; Jasminonerium dulce (Schumach. & Thonn.) Kuntze; Jasminonerium edule (Forssk) Kuntze; Jasminonerium inerme (Vahl0 Kuntze); Jasminonerium laxilforum (Benth) Kuntze; Jasminonerium madagascariense (Thouars) Kuntze; Jasminonerium ovatum (R.Br.) Kuntze; Jasminonerium pubescens (A.DC) Kuntze; Jasminonerium sechellense (Baker) Kuntze; Jasminonerium suavissimum (Bedd. ex Hook f) Kuntze; jasminonerium tomentosum (A.Rich.) Kuntze; jasminonerium xylopicron (Thouars) Kuntse [1]

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia: Berenda, Kerenda, Kerandang
English: Bengal Currant, Carandas Plum, Carissa, Christ's Thorns, Karansa
Indonesia: Karandan, Karendang
Thailand: Nam Phrom, namdaeng (Bangkok); Manaao Ho (Southern Peninsula) Naam Khee Haet (Chiang Mai)
Philippines: Caramba, Caranda, Caraunda, Perunkila
Vietnam: Cay siro
Myanmar: Hkan Ping
India:

Bainchi, Karamcha, Karenja, Kurumia (Bengali); Garinga, Gotho, Kantakregi, Karaunda, karaunta, Karonda, Karondi, Karonti, Karrona, Karumcha, Karunda, Korada, Timukhia, Timukha (Hindi); Dodda Kala, Dodda Kavali, Doddakavale, Doddakavali, Garacha, Garchinakai, Garaja, Garji, Harikalivi, Heggarichige, Heggaricige, Heggarjige, Hirikalavali, Hirikacali, Kalaagida, Kalavige, Kalivi, Kalla, Kamarika, Kamrdepulli, Karanda, Karande, Karande Pli, Karavadi, Karekai, Karekayi, Kareki, Karevati, Kari, Karice, Kariche, Carichi, Karichina, Kaayi, Karicinakayi, Karinda, Karndepuli, Kauligidam, Kavale, Kavalil Kavali Gida, Kawliballi, Korindamalekalaavu, (Kannada); Kalavu, Karakka, Karanta, Karekai, Keelay, Kilai, Klavu, Kulay, Perumklavu (Malayalam); Boranda, Boronda, Haradundi, Karanda, Karandi, Karaunda, Karavanda, Karavanad, KAravandi, Karwand-Karanja (Marathi), Sushena (Oriya), Avighna, Avighnah, Avinga, Bahudala, Bolekarambuka, Dimdima, Dridhakantaka, Guchhi, Jalipushpa, Kanachuka, Kantaki, Karamarda, Karamardaka, Karmla, Karamlaka, Karinkara, Krishna-Pakphula, Krishnapakaphala, Krishnaphala, Krisnapakaphala, Kshiraphala, Kshiri, Ksiraphala, Pakakrishna, Pakaphala, Panimarda, Phalakrishna, Supushpa, Susena, Vanalaya, Vanekshudra, Vasha (Sanskrit); Aintaikam, Aintarikamaram, Alarukam, Alarukamaram, Cenkala, Cirapalam, Cirukala, Kala, Kalakka, Kalakkay, Perumkla, Perungala, Kalaaha, Kalaka, Kalar, Kalarva, Karavintai, Kila, Kilakkai, Kilakki, Kilamaram, Kilatti, Kilay, Kirusnapakapalam, Kirusnapalai, Kiruttinapakapalam, Periyakala, Perukala, Perunikila, Perunkila, Perunkala, Ver, Yokatumacceti, Yokatumam (Tamil); Kalay, Kali, Kali-Kali, Kalikai, Kaliva, Oka, Okalive, Pedda, Kalive, Peddakalavi, Peddakalive, Peddavakaya, Vaka, Vakalive, Vakalivi, Vakalivi, Vakudu, Waaka, Waka, Wakay, Wyaka, Vaaka Chettu, Vaaklive, Yaakudu (Telugu)

Pakistan: Gerna, Karanda, Kakranda
China: Ci Huang Guo, Tz’z-huang-kuo
Portuguese: Carandeira [1]

General Information

Description

Carissa carandas is a member of the Apocyanceae family. It is a woody, climbing shrub or small tree with profuse branching. It can grow up to a height of 5m. The branches have either simple or forked thorns which appear at the leaf axil, measuring up to 5cm long. The leaves are opposite, broadly ovate to oblong and measuring between 3-7cm long and 1.5-4.0cm wide. The base is broadly cunate to round, short apiculate apex. The leaves are dark green, leathery, glossy on the upper surface, and of lighter green shade and dull on the undersurface. The inflorescence appears in terminal cymes with 3 fragrant flowers that are 1.5-2.5cm long with minute bracteoles. Both calyx and corolla are synpetalous. The calyx is 5-partite, with very slender, pointed, and hairy segments with many basal glands inside. The corolla is 5-lobed, salverform, the lobes being oblong lanceolate, overlapping to the right, pubescent, and the corolla tube is cylindrical 2cm , dilated at the throat, pubescent, white to pale rose. The fruit is a drupe, broadly ovoid or ellipsoid, 1.5-2.5 cm long, bluntly pointed, white to pinky-white and pink turning blackish or reddish-purple when ripe. There are 2-4 small, flat, oblongois, brown seeds embedded in the sour reddish-purple pulp. [1]

Plant Part Used

Roots, leaves and fruits. [1] [2]

Chemical Constituents

isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, [b]-caryophyllene, cyaniding 3-rhamnoglucoside, carissin (3 b-hydroxy-27-E-feruloyloxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid), carandoside, (6 S,7R,8R)-7a-[(b-glucopyranosyl)oxy] lyoniresinol, carinol, carissone, carindone, ursolic acid, carissic acid; carissol. [1] [3] [4]

Traditional Used:

The sour fruit is considered astringent, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, thermogenic, appetizer and constipating. [1]

Gastrointestinal diseases

The fruit of C. carandas has been utilized to treat various gastrointestinal conditions. The unripe fruit is given to patients suffering from diarrhea, anorexia and haematemesis, while the ripe fruits have found use in treating flatulence, biliousness and as a stomachic. It has been advocated for use in hyperacidity, poor digestion and even for slimming. The leaves can be used as remedy for diarrhea and oral inflammation. The root is a bitter stomachic and a vermifuge. [1] [2]

Inflammatory conditions

The ripe of C. carandas fruit posseses cooling effects. It is used to relieve otalgia, burning sensation, skin disorders like scabies and prutitus. The leaf can help relieve syphilitic pain and otalgia too. The juice of the fresh plant or the root paste is used to treat non-healing wounds especially diabetic ulcers. [1] [2]

Other uses

The unripe fruit and the leaf decoction have been employed in the treatment of intermittent fever. The root is used in the treatment of gonorrhea, pyrexia and chronic ulcer. The root is also used in urinary disorder. [1] [2]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

Hepatoprotective activity

The ethanol extract of C. carandas roots exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against injuries to the liver induced by Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and paracetamol. This is evidenced by its ability to decrease the activities of serum marker enzymes, bilirubin and lipid peroxidation with a significant increase in levels of uric acid, glutathione, super oxide dismutase, catalase and protein. There was also evidence of strong antioxidant activity which probably accounts for this hepatoprotective activity. [5]

Antidiabetic activity

The methanol extract and its ehtyacetate fraction showed significant ability to lower the elevated blood glucose leves in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The quantum of reduction was by as much as 64.5% in the ethylacetate fraction. Making it more potent than the methanol extract per se. [6]

Toxicities

The white latex of the plant is caustic. [1]

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

References

  1. Lim TK. Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants; Volume 1, Fruits Springer Berlin; 2012. p. 240–245.
  2. Khare CP. Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary Springer Berlin; 2007 pg. 123.
  3. Nizami SS, Khan MA, Naim Z, Islam MN Khan, Azeem SW. Biosynthesis Of Carissol and Carissic Acid. Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 1993 Jan;6(1):97-99.
  4. Siddiqui BS, Ghani U, Ali ST, Usmani SB, Begum S. Triterpenoidal constituents of the leaves of Carissa carandas. Natural Product Research. 2003 Jun;17(3):153-8.
  5. Hegde K, Joshi AB. Hepatoprotective effect of Carissa carandas Linn root extract against CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatic oxidative stress. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 2009 Aug;47(8):660-7.
  6. Itankar PR, Lokhande SJ, Verma PR, Arora SK, Sahu RA, Patil AT. Antidiabetic potential of unripe Carissa carandas Linn. fruit extract. Journal of Ethnopharmacology2011 May 17;135(2):430-3.