Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea

Synonyms

Ixora manila Blanco [7]

Vernacular Names

Malaysia Cengam, Cingam, Singam, Sebasah (Peninsular Malaysia); Geriting Putih, Jambo-jambo, Landing-landing, Randing-randing, Santing-santing (Malaysian Borneo)
Indonesia Duduk Rayup (Java); Cingam, Duduk Perempuan, Perapat Lanang (Sumatra)
Thailand See Ngam, Sengum Dok
Philippines Agnaya, Aranaya, Arinaya, Balasiai, Hanbulali, Kulasi, Landing, Nilad, Nilar, Sabasa, Sagasa, Tabau, Tagsiak, Tugsiak, Unasi
Vietnam Coi [3][4][5][7]

General Information

Description

Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea is a member of the Rubaiceae family. It is one of the true mangrove trees found in the foreshore mud seasides of the tropical belt. It is a shrub or small tree that could reach up to 4m high. The branches are weakly flattened to angled or terete, glabrous or puberulent, with nodes thickened and reduced internodes and congested nodes. The leaves are obovate to broadly elliptic and measures 2.5-7.5 x 1.5-4.5cm, glabrous on both surfaces with the upper surface shiny. The base is cuneate to obtuse, the apex is rounded; secondary veins are not visible. The petiole is 0.5-1.5cm long, and stipules are 1.5-3mm and their margins are often sparsely or densely ciliated. The inflorescence measures 1.5-3 x 2-2.5cm; peduncle is 0.5-1cm long. The flowers are usually sessile or pedicellate and pedicels or subtending inflorescence axes are 2mm long. The calyx is glabrous to puberulent. The ovary portion being cylindrical-ellipsoid measuring 3-4mm; limb is 1-1.5mm, truncate to denticulate. The corolla is glabrous outside; tube measures 4-5mm long; lobes ovate-lingulated measuring 2mm, obtuse. The drupe is 8-11 x 3-5mm and glabrous. [1]

Plant Part Used

Leaves [3][7]

Chemical Constituents

4-hydroxyphenethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate; betulone; casuarinondiol; cyclo (Pro-Val); cyclo (Phe-Hyp); fraxetol; friedelin; geniposidic acid; guaiacylglycerol-beta-ferulic acid ether; guignardone D and E; hydrophylin A and B; isoscopoletin; methyl pyroglutamate; methyl 5-acetamido-6-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxohexanoate; R-3-hydroxyundecanoic uridine-5'α-hydroxypropanoate; acid methylester-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside; scyphiphin C, D; syringic acid. [2][8-12]

Traditional Used:

A warm extract of the leaves is supposedly helpful for stomachache. [3][7]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

Cytotoxic activity

A screening for cytotoxic agent in mangrove plants showed that S. hydrophyllacea inhibited human hepatoma SMCC-7721 cell lines with IC50 of 15.1µg/mL. Chemical analysis showed the presence of flavones and triterpenoids of which betulone exhibits inhibitory activity towards human hepatoma SMCC-7721 cell lines (IC50 = 12.5µg/mL). The noriridoids isolated from the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of S. hydrophyllacea did not show obvious cytotoxicity against the SMMC-7721 cell lines by the MTT methods. The IC50 values of the isolated compounds against SMMC-7721 were more than 100µg/l. [2] Two compounds isolated from the endophytic fungus Z18-17 (Nigrospora sp.) i.e. methyl 5-acetamido-6-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxohexanoate and uridine-5'α-hydroxypropanoate, were tested against HL-60 cell lines and their IC50 were found to be over 100µg/mL. [12]

Antimicrobial activity

A number of compounds isolated from the endophytic fungus A1 of S. hydrophyllacea were found to exhibit antimicrobial activity especially against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and S. aureus[13]

Toxicities

No documentation

Teratogenic effects

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

References

  1. e-Flora of China. Available from: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=3&taxon_id=200022220 [Accessed on 18th May 2013]
  2. Zeng TB, Mei WL, Zhao YX, Dai HF. Two New Noriridoids from Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. Z. Naturforsch. 2008; 108 -110
  3. Ng PKL, Sivasothi N. Guide to the Mangroves of Singapore . Available from: http://mangrove.nus.edu.sg/guidebooks/text/1072.htm.  [Accessed on 18th May 2013]
  4. Asian Plants. Available from: http://www.asianplant.net/Rubiaceae/Scyphiphora_hydrophyllacea.htm. [Accessed on 18th May 2013]
  5. Saenger P. Mangrove Ecology, Siviculture and Conservation, Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 2002. p. 19.
  6. Tomlinson PB. The Botany of Mangroves Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 1986. p. 361
  7. Burkill IH. A Dictionary of Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula Volume 2, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 1966. p. 2022 – 2033
  8. Tao SH, Gao GC, Qi SH, Li QX, Zhang S. Studies on the chemical constituents of Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea (II). Zhong Yao Cai. 2009; 32(5):712-4.
  9. Feng CL, Gong MF, Zeng YB, Dai HF, Mei WL. Scyphiphin C, a new iridoid from Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. Molecules. 2010; 15(4):2473-7.
  10. Zheng B, Zeng YB, Dai HF, Zuo WJ, Guo ZK, Yang T, Zhong HM, Mei WL. Two new meroterpenes from endophytic fungus A1 of Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2012;14(8):776-9.
  11. Zeng YB, Wang H, Zuo WJ, Zheng B, Yang T, Dai HF, Mei WL. A fatty acid glycoside from a marine-derived fungus isolated from mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. Mar Drugs. 2012;10(3):598-603.
  12. Chen G, Tian L, Wu HH, Bai J, Lu X, Xu Y, Pei YH. Secondary metabolites from fungus Nigrospora sp. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2012;14(8):759-63. doi
  13. Mei WL, Zheng B, Zhao YX, Zhong HM, Chen XL, Zeng YB, Dong WH, Huang JL, Proksch P, Dai HF. Meroterpenes from endophytic fungus A1 of mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. Mar Drugs. 2012 ; 10(9):1993-2001.