Actinoscirpus grossus (L.f.) Goetgh. & D.A.Simpson

Last updated: 13 March 2015

Scientific Name

Actinoscirpus grossus (L.f.) Goetgh. & D.A.Simpson

Synonyms                                   

Hymenochaeta grossa (L.f.) Nees, Hymenochaeta haematodes Nees & Meyen [Invalid], Hymenochaeta maxima (Roxb.) Nees, Isolepis maxima A.Dietr., Schoenoplectus grossus (L.f.) Palla, Scirpus aemulans Steud., Scirpus canaliculatotriqueter Steud., Scirpus griffithii Boeckeler, Scirpus grossus L.f., Scirpus maximus Roxb., Scirpus scaberrimus Boeckeler [1].

Vernacular Name

Malaysia

Rumput menderong, rumput menerong, rumput morong [2]

English

Giant bulrush [2]

In­donesia

Mensiang (Western Sumatra); lingi (Ja­vanese); walingi (Sundanese) [2]

Philippines

Tikiu, titiu (Tagalog); agas (Bikol) [2]

Vietnam

Chi c[os]i d[uf]i [2]

Thailand

Kok, kok prue, kok saamliam (Central, Bangkok) [2]

Geographical Distributions

Actinoscirpus gras­sus probably originated in Southeast Asia and is widely distributed in the Old World tropics from India, Sri Lanka and southern China throughout Southeast Asia to the Bonin Islands (south of Japan), Micronesia and tropical Australia. It is occurs often abundantly, in swampy or inundated locations, pools, ditches and rice fields, from sea level up to 900 m altitude [2].

Botanical Description

A. grassus is a plant from family of Cyperaceae. It is an erect, stout, rhizomatous pe­rennial herb that can grow up to 2 m tall [2].

The stem is sharply 3-angled with concave sides, measuring 80-200 cm x 0.5-2.5 cm, smooth, spongy, strongly septate-nodulose, with a corm-like enlargement at base, and singular growing in small groups or in dense tufts [2].

Some of the leaves are sheathed and pale yel­low with spongy sheath, prominently septate-nodose and tightly surrounding the stem base. The blade is sublin­ear and measuring 50-180 cm x 1-3 cm. The lower half is keeled and 3-sided, some thickish, soft and strongly sep­tate-nodulose while the upper half is almost flat and gradually acuminate, and with subscabrous margin [2].

The inflo­rescence is 6-15 cm long, terminal, and corymbiform with primary, sec­ondary and tertiary rays. There are 3-4 involucral bracts which are leaf-like, flat, linear, 15-70 cm long and with at least 2 overtopping the inflorescence. There are several primary rays which are spreading, unequal and scaberulous while the secondary rays are 1-4 cm long. There are numerous spikelets which are solitary, peduncled except for terminal ones, ellip­soidal, measuring 4-10 mm x 3.5-4 mm [2].

The flower is bisexual. The glumes are spirally arranged, appressed, con­cave-ovate, measuring about 3 mm x 2 mm, membranous, nearly smooth, prominent and with green midrib, red-brown with finely ciliolate margins and with ob­tuse to short mucronulate apex. There are 4-6 hypogynous bristles (perianth) which are retrorsely scabrous and slightly longer than the fruit. There are 3 stamens which are very short, and with linear anthers about 1 mm long. The style is 3 mm long [2].

The fruit is a nut­like, trigonous, obovate achene that measures about 1-2 mm x 1 mm, apiculate and brown [2].

Cultivation

In Indonesia, it is considered a weed of minor im­portance in lowland-irrigated and tidal rice fields, where it can be controlled manually, by deep-ploughing before seed formation, or with herbicides. In Peninsular Malaysia, it is one of the major weeds of transplanted rice [1]. It is an important aquatic weed in Southeast Asia [2].

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous

Line drawing

Actinoscirpus grossus L.f. Goetgh. D.A.Simpson

Figure 1: The line drawing of A. grossus. [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Actinoscirpus grossus (L.f.) Goetgh. & D.A.Simpson. [updated 2012 March 23; cited 2014 July 14]. c2013. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-217752
  2. Michael H. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 17: Fibre Plants. New Jersey: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2007.