Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa

                                                                   Last updated: 18 March 2015

Scientific Name

Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa

Synonyms

Belou marmelos (L.) Lyons, Bilacus marmelos (L.) Kuntze, Crateva marmelos L., Crateva religiosa Ainslie [Illegitimate], Feronia pellucida Roth [1].

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Bilak, bila, bel [2]
English Bael or bel fruit, bengal quince, bitter orange, elephant's apple, japanese bitter apple, maredoo, stone apple, wood apple [2] [3]
China Meng jia la ping guo, ying pi ju, yin du gou qi [3]
India Bel, beli, belgiri, bila, bilin, shil, shul, siphal, sirphal, shriphal, vilva, willaw, willau (Hindi); bilva, bilwa, shivadrumaa, shivaphala, vilva, vilvam (Sanskrit);  kuuviram, vilvama, vilvam , vilva marum (Tamil); bilva, bilva pandu, maaredu, kapitthaphalamu, velagapandu (Telugu);  bel, bel kham, belgiri (Urdu); maaredy (Malayalam); bel, vel (Marathi); baelada mara, belpatra, bilva, maaluraa (Kannada); belo [3]
Indonesia Maja, maja batu, bel, bila, bilak, maja pahit, modjo (Java) [2] [3]
Philippines Bael [2]
Myanmar Opesheet, okshit, ohshit [2] [3]
Vietnam Trái mam, bau nau [2] [3]
Thailand Matum, tum (Pattani); ma pin (North) [2]
Laos Toum [2]
Cambodia Bnau, phneou, pnoi [2] [3]
Nepal Bel, belapatra, belpatra [3]
Sri Lanka Be li [3]
Japan Berunoki, igure marumerozu [3]
Iran Bah hindi shull [3]
United Arab Emirates Safargal hindî, safarjal e hindî, shull [3]
Turkey Hind ayva agh [3]
France Bel indien, cognassier du bengal, coing de l'Inde, oranger de malabar, oranger du Malabar [2] [3]
Germany Belbaum, bengalische quitte, indische quitte [3]
Hungary Bengálibirs [3]
Italy Cotogno del bengala, cotogno d'India [3]
Portugal Marmelos de bengala, marmeleiro de India [3]
Poland Klejowiec jadalny [3].

Geographical Distributions

Aegle marmelos grows wild in dry forests of the Indian Peninsula, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Bangladesh. It is an old cultivated tree in that region, mainly found in temple gardens throughout India. It has spread to Indo-China, Southeast Asia (in particular Thailand, northern Malaysia, eastern Java and northern Luzon) and other parts of the tropics. [2]

Botanical Description

A. marmelos is a member of family Rutaceae. It is small deciduous tree, 10-15 m tall with trunk of 25-50 cm in diametre. The older branches are spiny and the spines of 1-2 cm long are single or paired. [2]

The leaves are arranged alternately and trifoliolate, with petiole of 2-4 cm long. The lateral petiolules are up to 3 mm long while the terminal up to 15 mm. The lateral leaflets are ovate to elliptic, measuring up to 7 cm x 4.2 cm, while the terminal leaflets are obovate, up to 7.5 cm x 4.8 cm and densely minutely glandular-punctate. [2]

The inflorescences are axillary racemes, 4-5 cm long and clustered. The sepals are broadly deltoid and 1.5 mm long. The petals are oblong-obovate and greenish to white, measuring 14 mm x 8 mm. There are 35-45 white stamens and 4-7 mm long filaments. The ovary measures 8 mm x 4 mm and with very short style. [2]

The fruit is a spherical berry, 5-12.5 cm in diametre and often with a hard, woody shell. It has 8-16(-20) segments, with 6-10 seeds in a clear, sticky and edible pulp. [2]

The seeds are woolly-hairy, each enclosed in a sac of adhesive mucilage which solidifies on drying while its testa is white. [2]

Cultivation

A. marmelos is a hardy, deciduous tree of the subtropics. It grows under harsh conditions, even in extreme temperature, e.g. from 49°C in summer to -7°C in winter in Punjab, up to 1200 m elevation. In Southeast Asia, it only flowers and fruits well where there is a prominent dry season and it is not usually found above 500 m sea level. The tree grows on swampy land as well as dry soils and it tolerates alkalinity. [2]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous

No documentation

Line drawing

Aegle marmelos

Figure 1: Line drawing of A. marmelos (L.) Correa

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver 1.1 Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013. [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2014 July 23]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2623456
  2. Sunarto AT. Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa In: Verheij EWM, Coronel RE, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 2: Edible fruits and nuts. Netherlands, Pudoc Scientific Publishers;1991. p. 59-60.
  3. Philippines medicinal plants. Aeginetia indica L. [homepage on the internet] c2014. [updated 2014; cited 2014 Dec 17] Available from: http://www.stuartxchange.com/Bael.html