Agelaea macrophylla (Zoll.) Leenh

Last updated: 03 April 2015

Scientific Name

Agelaea macrophylla (Zoll.) Leenh.


Agelaea trinervis (Lianos) Merr., Agelaea diepenhorstii King, Agelaea hullettii King, Agelaea sarawakensis Merr., Agelaea wallichii Hook.f., Castanola hullettii (King) Schellenb., Castanola macrophylla (Zoll.) Schellenb., Castanola wallichii (Hook.f.) Schellenb., Connarus diepenhorstii Miq., Erythrostigma macrophylla Zoll., Erythrostigma macrophyllum Zoll., Hemiandrina hullettii (King) G. Schellenb. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Akar pinang kutai, akar nyamok, kelentit nyamok (Peninsula); pinang kotai, akar pinang ketul [2] [3]
Indonesia Areuy koko-tokan (Sundanese); anceng (Javanese); akar tanduk (Sumatra) [2]
Philippines Tayabak, ulali (Tagalog); dagtung (Manobo) [2]
Thailand Thao som ching (Surat Thani); ma khroh (Krabi) [2]
Vietnam D[aa]y tr[uw][owf]ng ng[aa]n [2]

Geographical Distributions

Agelaea macrophylla occurs in Indo-China, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Bali, Borneo, the Moluccas and the Philippines. This plant occurs in all kinds of forest, primary as well as secondary, on marshy soils to limestone rocks, up to 800 m altitude. [2]

Botanical Description

A. macrophylla  is from the family of Connaraceae. It is a large liana, with stem up to 4 cm in diametre. The leaf stalk is up to 15 cm long while the stipules are absent. [2]

The leaves are with three leaflets. The leaflets are egg-shaped to elliptical-oblong, about 4-34 cm x 2-14 cm. They are entire. The upper surface has many mucous cells, which looks like small pits in dried material. [2]

Inflorescence is an axillary, paniculate and often several together in the axil of a sometimes-rudimentary leaf, up to 5 cm long. [2]

The flowers are bisexual, (4-)5-merous, up to 6 mm long, sweet-scented and more or less heterodistylous. Pedicels are jointed. The sepals are nearly free. Petals are much longer than sepals, free and whitish. There are 10 stamens, shortly united at base with 5 are slightly longer than the other 5. The carpels are 5, superior and free. [2]

The fruit is consisting of 1-5 follicles, obovoid, with or without a beak at the apex, velvety, orange to red, dehiscing by a ventral suture and 1-seeded. [2]

The seeds are fleshy, yellow to red testa in lower part and black but glossy testa in upper part. They are without endosperm. The cotyledons are thick and planoconvex. [2]


No documentation

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

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Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

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Clinical Data

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Line drawing

Agelaea macrophylla

Figure 1: The line drawing of A. macrophylla. [2]


  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1 Agelaea macrophylla (Zoll.) Leenh.[homepage on the Internet].c2013 [updated 2012 April 18; cited 2014 July 23]. Available from
  2. Lemmens RHMJ, Bunyapraphatsara N, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(1).: Medicinal and Poisonous Plants. Netherlands: Backhyus; 2003.
  3. Compendium of Medicinal Plants Used in Malaysia. Vol. 1. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC-IMR: 2002. p.21.