Alstonia macrophylla Wall. ex G.Don

Last updated: 02 April 2015

Scientific Name

Alstonia macrophylla Wall. ex G.Don


Alstonia acuminata Miq., Alstonia batino Blanco, Alstonia brassii Monach., Alstonia costata Wall. ex Miq. [Illegitimate], Alstonia glabriflora Markgr., Alstonia oblongifolia Merr., Alstonia pangkorensis King & Gamble, Alstonia paucinervia Merr., Alstonia subsessilis Miq., Echites trifidus Blanco [Illegitimate] [1]


Malaysia Pulai penipu bukit (Peninsula); pulai daun besar, sayongan (Sabah); [2][3]pulai batu [4]
English Hard alstonia, hard milkwood, [2]devil tree [3]
Indonesia Pule batu (Ambon); kai riti (Seram); ai oi (Biak) [2] [3]
Thailand Thungfa, kra thungfa hai, teen thian (Peninsula) [2][3]
Philippines Batino (Tagalog, Bikol, Pangasinan); kuyau-kuyau (Bikol); itang-itang (Panay Bisaya) [2]
Vietnam s[uwx]a l[as] l[ows]n, m[ows]p l[as] to [2][3]
Papua New Guinea Ai wawoi (Papua); andelagar (Enga); dero (Madang) [2][3].

Geographical Distributions

Alstonia macrophylla From Sri Lanka and Nicobar Islands, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam to Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo (Sabah), the Philippines, the Moluccas and New Guinea. [2]

Botanical Description

A. macrophylla comes from the family of Apocynaceae. It is a small to medium-sized tree that can reach measures up to 30(-50) m tall, with straight bole, measuring up to 100 cm in diametre and sometimes fluted at the base or with small buttresses. The outer bark is blackish-brown to grey, smooth or rough, minutely scaly, tuberculate, or fissured while the inner bark is cream, with broken and orange-yellow laminations and without latex. [2]

The leaves are in whorls of 3-4, obovate or narrowly obovate, sometimes elliptical to narrowly elliptical, with a size of measuring 4.5-25(-32) cm x 1.5-10.5 cm, rounded to narrowly acuminate apex, with 12-25(-31) pairs of secondary veins while the petiole is measures 2-25 mm long. [2]

The inflorescence is with many-flowered and with measures 1-4 mm long pedicel. The sepal is puberulous to hairless while the inside of the petal is hairless. The follicles are smooth. [2]


A. macrophylla cultivated in India and Africa. It is grows in a wide range of vegetation types and soils in primary and disturbed forest ranging from flooded areas to montane forest, on soils ranging from sandy clay to limestone, from sea-level to about 2900 m altitude. [2]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation


No documentation


No documentation

Line drawing


Figure 1: The line drawing of A. macrophylla Wallich ex G. Don. [2]


  1. The Plant List. Ver 1.1. Alstonia macrophylla Wall. ex G.Don [homepage on the Internet]. c2013. [updated 2012 March 23; cited 2015 April 02] Available from:
  2. Teo SP. Alstonia macrophylla Wallich ex G. Don. In: van Valkenburg JLCH, Bunyapraphatsara N, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(2): Medicinal and poisonous plants 2. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher; 2001. p. 66-67.
  3. Philippines medicinal plants. Alstonia macrophylla Wallich ex G. Don. [homepage on the internet] c2014. [updated 2014; cited 2015 April 02] Available from
  4. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute Medical Research. Compendium of Medicinal Plants Used in Malaysia. Vol. 1. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC-IMR; 2002. p. 36.