Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson

Last updated: 06 April 2015

Scientific Name

Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson

Synonyms

Amorphophallus campanulatus Decne., Amorphophallus chatty Andrews, Amorphophallus decurrens (Blanco) Kunth, Amorphophallus dixenii K.Larsen & S.S.Larsen, Amorphophallus dubius Blume, Amorphophallus giganteus Blume [Illegitimate], Amorphophallus gigantiflorus Hayata, Amorphophallus malaccensis Ridl., Amorphophallus microappendiculatus Engl., Amorphophallus rex Prain,, Amorphophallus sativus Blume, Amorphophallus virosus N.E.Br., Arum campanulatum Roxb. [Illegitimate], Arum decurrens Blanco, Arum phalliferum Oken, Arum rumphii Gaudich. [Illegitimate], Arum rumphii Oken, Candarum hookeri Schott [Illegitimate], Candarum roxburghii Schott [Illegitimate], Candarum rumphii Schott [Illegitimate], Conophallus giganteus Schott ex Miq. [Illegitimate], Conophallus sativus (Blume) Schott, Dracontium paeoniifolium Dennst., Dracontium polyphyllum Dennst. [Illegitimate], Dracontium polyphyllum G.Forst., Hydrosme gigantiflora (Hayata) S.S.Ying, Kunda verrucosa Raf. [Illegitimate], Plesmonium nobile Schott, Pythion campanulatum Mart. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Loki, ubi kekek [2][4], lokai, ubi kekek, hakai, miok [5]
English Elephant yam, telinga potato [3], elephant’s foot, elephant’s foot yam, telingo patato, telugu potato, whites-spot giant arum [4], corpse flower, leopard palm [6]
China Chou mo yu, xie bn yu, nan xing tou, nan yu, ji zhao yu [6]
India Suranah, cena,cenai, jangli suran, suran [3], alu, alukamu, anaittantu, arsaghna, arshogna, bahukanda, bono ulo, boomi, sallaraikilangu, camattilai, choorana, choorana gedde, cinapavu, cirramitakkarunai, curanam, daradakandagadda, dula dumpa, duladumpa, durnamari, gandigadda, gandira, ghemikanda, haopan, hlochangvawn, jamikand, jangli suran, jimi kand, jimikand, kaatucheena, kaatu chena, kanda, kanda gedde, kandagodda, kandala, kandavardhana, kantai, kanthalla, karak karunai, karak-karunai, karani,karanai,karunai-k-kilanku, karunai kizhangu, karanaikkilanku, karikarunai, karnai kilangu, karuna kalang, karunaippala, karunakarang, kattu-chena, khatual, kiccilikkizanku, kizhanna, kunda,madana masta, malaiyalaccenaikkilanku, manchi kanda, manchi-kindaguddae , manchikanda, mulenschena maati kanda, ol, ol-kachu, ola, olakar, ole, olla, olua, oorakanda, paatikanda, paterbel, perunkarunai, poti-kunda, potikanda, pulidumpa, pulik karunai, puttakanda, rutchyakanda, sala, schena, senai kizhangu, shoran, sooran, sthulakandaka, sukandi, suran, suran-kand, surana, suranah, suranaka, suraankanda [4]
Indonesia Suweg , walur, eles [2], eles, iles-iles, kembang bangka, suweg, walur [4], kembang bangah, achung, ileus [5]
Thailand Buk (General); buk-khungkhok (South-eastern); man-suran (Central) [2][4]
Laos Duk düa (General); abuki (Southern) [2][4]
Philippines Pungapung (Tagalog); anto (Bisaya); bagong (Bikol) [2]; apon, apong-apong, bagang,bagong, konda,muncha kunda, oroi, pamangkilon, pongapong, pungapung, tigi-nga-magmanto, tokod banua [4]
Cambodia Toal [2]
Vietnam Khoai n[uw]a, n[uw]a chu[oo]ng [2][4], nua chuong[6]
Nepal Ole[6]
Papua New Guinea Makoa, pompowlma [4]
France Gouniah d'Annam [6]
Poland Dziwadlo [6].

Geographical Distributions

Amorphophallus paeoniifolius occurs in a wild and cultivated from Madagascar eastwards via India and Southeast Asia to Polynesia, including also southern China and northern Australia. Because of it easily escapes from cultivation and naturalise, its exact origin is unknown. [2]

A. paeoniifolius develops best with an evenly distributed rainfall of 1000-1500 mm during the growing period.  It is found in many different soil types but never under swampy conditions. [2]

Botanical Description

A. paeoniifolius comes from the family of Araceae. It is a tuber that can reach up to 30 cm in diametre, measures 20 cm long and weighs up to 25 kg. This dark brown species produces seasonal rhizomatous offsets measuring up to 10 cm x 4 cm. [2]

The petiole measuring up to 200 cm x 20 cm, shallowly corrugate to strongly echinate-verrucate, pale to dark green with numerous pale blotches and with small dark dots. The blade measuring up to 3 m in diametre, highly dissected and with winged rachises. [2]

The leaflets are rounded-ovate to lanceolate and measuring 3-35 cm x 2-12 cm. The peduncle is 3-20 cm x 1-8 cm and elongates to 1 m length in fruiting. [2]

The spathe is 10-40 cm x 15-60 cm, spreading limb and strong undulate, pale green to dark brown and with paler spots outside while glossy dark brown inside. The spadix is shorter or longer than the spathe measures 7-70 cm long. [2]

The berry is cylindrical, measuring 1.5-2 cm x 8-10 mm and bright red. [2]

Cultivation

A. paeoniifolius prefers well-drained soils with high humus content. A deep sandy-loamy soil with pH 6-7.5 is favourable; clay soils are unsuitable because they hamper tuber development. [2]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

339

Figure 1: The line drawing of A. paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2015 Apr 6]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-8254
  2. Jansen PCM, van der Wilk C, Hetterscheid WLA. Amorphophallus Blume ex Decaisne. In: Flach M, Rumawas F, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 9: Plants yielding non-seed carbohydrates. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher, 1996; p. 45-50.
  3. Umberto Q. CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology, Volume 1. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1999. p. 118
  4. Umberto Q. CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology (5 Volume Set). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2012. p. 254
  5. Herbal Medicine Research Centre Institute Medical Research. Compendium of Medicinal Plants Used in Malaysia. Volume 1. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC-IMR; 2002. p.42.
  6. Philippines medicinal plants. Pungapung. [homepage on the internet] c2014. [updated 2014; cited 2014 Dec 12]. Available from http://www.stuartxchange.com/Pungapung.html