Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr

Last updated: 15 April 2015

Scientific Name

Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr.


Artocarpus champeden (Lour.) Stokes, Artocarpus hirsutissimus Kurz, Artocarpus integrifolius L.f., Artocarpus jaca Miq., Artocarpus pilosus Reinw. ex Miq., Artocarpus polyphemus Pers. [Illegitimate], Polyphema champeden Lour. [unresolved], Radermachia integra Thunb., Saccus integer (Thunb.) Kuntze [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Chempedak (Cultivated); bankong (Wild); baroh (Johor) [2]; chempedak utan [3]
English Chempedak [2]
India Amasayaphala, atibrrhatphala, chempedak, khantajipala, panasa [4]
Indonesia Chempedak, campedak (Malay); baroh (Lingga); jekkar, majik, nangka kecil [4]
Thailand Champada [2]
Myanmar Sonekadat [2][4]
Philippines Nangka [4].

Geographical Distributions

Artocarpus integer is widely distributed in Burma (Tenasserim), Peninsular Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, the Lingga Archipelago, Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi, the Moluccas and Irian Jaya. [2]

This plant is a common tree in secondary forests and locally abundant in primary lowland rainforests in its area of natural occurrence. It can grow up to 500(-1300) m altitude and often on wet hillsides. It is strictly tropical and always restricted to regions without a distinct dry season. [2]

Botanical Description

A. integer is a member of the family Moraceae [1] [2]. It is an evergreen monoecious tree that can reach up to 20 m tall. It is seldom buttressed, grey-brown bark, bumps on the trunk and with the main limbs where the leafy twigs are produced, which bear the fruits [2].

The twigs, stipules and leaves are with brown wiry hairs and measure up to 3 mm long. The twigs are 2.5-4 mm thick and with ring-shaped stipular scars. The stipules are ovate and measure up to 9 cm long. The leaves are obovate to elliptic, measuring 5-25 cm x 2.5-12 cm, rounded to wedge-shaped at the base, entire at the margin and acuminate at the apex. The lateral veins are 6-10 pairs and curve forward. The petiole is 1-3 cm long. [2]

The inflorescences are solitary, axillary and cauliflorous or ramiflorous on the short leafy shoots. The male heads are cylindrical, measuring 3-5.5 cm x 1 cm, whitish-yellow and with a peduncle measures 3-6 cm long. The female heads are with simple slender styles and exserted to 1.5 mm long. [2]

The yellowish to brownish to orange-green fruit is a syncarp, cylindrical to almost spherical, measuring 20-35 cm x 10-15 cm, strongly smelling at maturity, smooth or covered by closely set, firm and with the obtuse prickles or processes of 2-4 mm in length. The peduncle is 5-9 cm long and with about 1 cm thick wall. The fruiting perianths are numerous, soft, fleshy, become detached from wall and core. The pericarps (including the seeds) are ellipsoid to oblong, measuring about 3 cm x 2 cm, with unequal cotyledons, thick and fleshy. The germination is epigeal. [2]


A. integer  cultivated in these areas as well as in western Java. The tree thrives on fertile well-drained soils, but prefers a fairly high water table (0.5-2 m). It can survive in periodic flooding, even with acid swamp water such as in Palembang and Palopo in Sumatra. [2]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation


No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing


Figure 1: The line drawing of A. integer (Thunb.) Merr. [2]


  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr.[homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 26; cited 2015 Apr 15]. Available from:
  2. Verheij EWM, Stone BC. Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr. In: Verheij EWM, Coronel RE editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 2: Edible fruits and nuts. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc; 1991. p. 91-94.
  3. Umberto Q. CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology, Volume 1. Boca Raton, FL: CRC press; 1999 p. 207.
  4. Umberto Q. CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology (5 Volume Set). Boca Raton, FL: CRC press; 2012. p. 426-427.