Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr

Last updated: 15 April 2015

Scientific Name

Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr.

Synonyms

Artocarpus champeden (Lour.) Stokes, Artocarpus hirsutissimus Kurz, Artocarpus integrifolius L.f., Artocarpus jaca Miq., Artocarpus pilosus Reinw. ex Miq., Artocarpus polyphemus Pers. [Illegitimate], Polyphema champeden Lour. [unresolved], Radermachia integra Thunb., Saccus integer (Thunb.) Kuntze [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Chempedak (Cultivated); bankong (Wild); baroh (Johor) [2]; chempedak utan [3]
English Chempedak [2]
India Amasayaphala, atibrrhatphala, chempedak, khantajipala, panasa [4]
Indonesia Chempedak, campedak (Malay); baroh (Lingga); jekkar, majik, nangka kecil [4]
Thailand Champada [2]
Myanmar Sonekadat [2][4]
Philippines Nangka [4].

Geographical Distributions

Artocarpus integer is widely distributed in Burma (Tenasserim), Peninsular Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, the Lingga Archipelago, Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi, the Moluccas and Irian Jaya. [2]

This plant is a common tree in secondary forests and locally abundant in primary lowland rainforests in its area of natural occurrence. It can grow up to 500(-1300) m altitude and often on wet hillsides. It is strictly tropical and always restricted to regions without a distinct dry season. [2]

Botanical Description

A. integer is a member of the family Moraceae [1] [2]. It is an evergreen monoecious tree that can reach up to 20 m tall. It is seldom buttressed, grey-brown bark, bumps on the trunk and with the main limbs where the leafy twigs are produced, which bear the fruits [2].

The twigs, stipules and leaves are with brown wiry hairs and measure up to 3 mm long. The twigs are 2.5-4 mm thick and with ring-shaped stipular scars. The stipules are ovate and measure up to 9 cm long. The leaves are obovate to elliptic, measuring 5-25 cm x 2.5-12 cm, rounded to wedge-shaped at the base, entire at the margin and acuminate at the apex. The lateral veins are 6-10 pairs and curve forward. The petiole is 1-3 cm long. [2]

The inflorescences are solitary, axillary and cauliflorous or ramiflorous on the short leafy shoots. The male heads are cylindrical, measuring 3-5.5 cm x 1 cm, whitish-yellow and with a peduncle measures 3-6 cm long. The female heads are with simple slender styles and exserted to 1.5 mm long. [2]

The yellowish to brownish to orange-green fruit is a syncarp, cylindrical to almost spherical, measuring 20-35 cm x 10-15 cm, strongly smelling at maturity, smooth or covered by closely set, firm and with the obtuse prickles or processes of 2-4 mm in length. The peduncle is 5-9 cm long and with about 1 cm thick wall. The fruiting perianths are numerous, soft, fleshy, become detached from wall and core. The pericarps (including the seeds) are ellipsoid to oblong, measuring about 3 cm x 2 cm, with unequal cotyledons, thick and fleshy. The germination is epigeal. [2]

Cultivation

A. integer  cultivated in these areas as well as in western Java. The tree thrives on fertile well-drained soils, but prefers a fairly high water table (0.5-2 m). It can survive in periodic flooding, even with acid swamp water such as in Palembang and Palopo in Sumatra. [2]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

370

Figure 1: The line drawing of A. integer (Thunb.) Merr. [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr.[homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 26; cited 2015 Apr 15]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2653995
  2. Verheij EWM, Stone BC. Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr. In: Verheij EWM, Coronel RE editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 2: Edible fruits and nuts. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc; 1991. p. 91-94.
  3. Umberto Q. CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology, Volume 1. Boca Raton, FL: CRC press; 1999 p. 207.
  4. Umberto Q. CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology (5 Volume Set). Boca Raton, FL: CRC press; 2012. p. 426-427.