Baliospermum solanifolium (Burm.) Suresh

Last updated: 15 April 2015

Scientific Name

Baliospermum solanifolium (Burm.) Suresh

Synonyms

Baliospermum angulare Decne. ex Baill., Baliospermum axillare Blume, Baliospermum indicum Decne., Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) Müll.Arg., Baliospermum moritzianum Baill., Baliospermum pendulinum Pax, Baliospermum polyandrum Wight [Illegitimate], Baliospermum raziana Keshaw, Murthy & Yogan., Croton polyandrus Roxb. [Illegitimate], Croton roxburghii Wall., Croton solanifolius Burm., Jatropha montana Willd,. Ricinus montanus (Willd.) Wall. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Akar kara nasi, terap kompong, maharaja lela (Peninsular) [2][3]
English Castor oil plant [3]
China Da nti (Tibet) [3]
India

Anukheti, anukula, appaiccevakaceti, appaiccevakam, artagala, bambhatti, bedanjire khatai, bhadra, buktumbo, cimai amanakku, cimaiyamannakku, dantan, dante, danthi, danti lambi waali,danti mool, dantika, danimool, donti, dravanti, dumajoda, dumbojoda, erandapatri, erandaphalaa, erradundinga, ettadundiga, gunapriya, habbussalatine-barri, habbusalatine-sabrai, hakni, hakum, hakuna, harital, illantanamanaklu, irancani, jamal ghota, jamalghota, jangli, jamaalgotaa, kaadu haralu, kaduharalu, kakubha, kanaka pata, kanakapaata, kanakapata, kanniyuchari, katalavanakku, kattamanakku, kattamankku, kondamudamu, kumbhachitra, kumbhi, kumpam, kurantaka, madhupushpa, makulaka,makunaka, maniyamanakku, maniyamanakkuceti, mukulaka, naaga danti, naga danti, nagadandi, nagadhanti beru, nagadanthi, nagadanti beru, nagadhanthi, nagas phota, nagavinna, nagdanthi, nakadanti, neelajiddi, neeradimuthu, nela jiddi, nelajidi, nepala, nepalam, nervalam, nikumba, nikumbha, nikhumbah, nikhimbi, nir adimutthu, niradimuthhu, niratimuthu, nirettimuttu, nirveti, nishalya, nishkumbha, parankiyamanakku, pey amanakku, peyamanakku, phan tap, pratyak-sherni, rakdhanti, rechani, rikhsa, sapdi, shighra, shighraa, shimaiamannaku, shwetaghanta, shyenaghanta, sighra, tanti, taruni, timpalai, turuvati, udumbarparni, upachitra, upakulya, varahangi, vishaalya, vishalya, vishodhini [3]

Indonesia Kasingsat (Sundanese); srintil, adal-adal (Javanese) [2]
Thailand Tong taek (Central); thon di (Central, Trang); nong pom (Loei) [2]; long pom, nong pom, pho-bho-cho, tho-klo, thon-di, tong taek [3]
Myanmar Natcho [2]
Vietnam C[aar]m t[uwr] n[us]i, c[oj] t[uw]a [2]
Bangladesh Tungkramon [3]
Nepal Ajaphal ka bot [3]

Geographical Distributions

Baliospermum solanifoliumoccurs in Pakistan, India, Bhutan, Bangladesh, the Andaman Islands, Burma (Myanmar), Indo-China, southern China, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java and Sumbawa. [2]

In Java, B. montanum occurs in open forests such as teak forests, brushwoods and grasslands, up to 250 m altitude. In Peninsular Malaysia, it is found in lowland forests but uncommon. It has been found only once in northern Sumatra. It is more common in India, Burma (Myanmar) and Thailand, where it occurs in moist or dry evergreen forests, bamboo forests and scrub vegetation up to 700 m altitude (in India and Burma (Myanmar) up to 1300 m). [2]

Botanical Description

B. solanifolium is a member of the family Euphorbiaceae [1]. It is a monoecious or sometimes dioecious bushy shrub, which can grow up to 2 m tall and often of somewhat herbaceous texture. The young branchlets are angled and striate, with yellow hairs but becoming hairless and often reddish with age [2].

The leaves are arranged alternately, simple, elliptical to oblong, broadly ovate, obovate or ovate-lance-shaped, measuring 5-25(-38) cm x 2.5-13(-18) cm, sometimes 3-5-lobed, slightly cordate to wedge-shaped at base, acuminate at apex, coarsely dentate at margins, pinnately veined and sometimes prominently 3-veined from base. The petiole is 1-11(-17) cm long, with 2 glands at apex. The stipules are gland-like. [2]

The inflorescence is an axillary with cyme up to 4 cm long. It is unisexual or bisexual and arranged on leafy branches. The bracts are up to 1.5 mm long. The flowers are unisexual, pedicelled, with 5 imbricate, pale green to reddish perianth lobes (petals absent) and lobed-crenate disk. The male flowers are about 2.5 mm in diametre, with 14-25 free stamens while the female flowers are with superior, nearly globular, 3-lobed and 3-celled ovary, 3 styles, connate at base and prominent bifid stigmas. [2]

The fruit is nearly globular, with 3-lobed capsule, which is up to 13 mm in diametre and 3-seeded. [2]

The seeds are ovoid, up to 9 mm long, grey, marbled, shiny, carunculate and with fleshy endosperm. [2]

Cultivation

No documentation

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

380

Figure 1: The line drawing of B. solanifolium (Burm.) Suresh [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Baliospermum solanifolium (Burm.) Suresh [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2015 Apr 15]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-19558
  2. Lemmens RHMJ, Bunyapraphatsara N, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 12 (3): Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 3. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publication; 2003.
  3. Umberto Q. CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology (5 Volume Set). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2012. p. 26.