Benkara fasciculata (Roxb.) Ridsdale

Last updated: 16 April 2015

Scientific Name

Benkara fasciculata (Roxb.) Ridsdale

Synonyms

Fagerlindia fasciculata (Roxb.) Tirveng., Gardenia fasciculata (Roxb.) Spreng., Gardenia rigida (Wall.) Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don [Illegitimate], Menestoria rigida (Wall.) DC., Oxyceros fasciculatus (Roxb.) T.Yamaz., Posoqueria fasciculata Roxb., Posoqueria rigida Wall., Randia fasciculata (Roxb.) DC., Randia malabarica Wall. [Invalid], Randia rigida (Wall.) DC., Randia triflora Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don, Solena fasciculata (Roxb.) D.Dietr., Solena rigida D.Dietr., Solena triflora (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) D.Dietr., Ucriana rigida (Wall.) D.Dietr., Webera fasciculata (Roxb.) Kurz [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Akar duri, akar kuku lang (Peninsular) [2]; akar mukeling [3]
India Semia [3]

Geographical Distributions

Benkara fasciculata is distributed from the Himalayas of Nepal, Bhutan and northern India, through eastern India, Indo-China and Thailand, to Peninsular Malaysia. In Peninsular Malaysia, this plant occurs in lowland and hill forest. [2]

Botanical Description

B. fasciculata is a member of the family Rubiaceae [1]. It is a shrub or small tree that can grow up to 6 m tall [2].

The leaves are arranged opposite, simple and entire, elliptical to ovate, 3-12 cm x 1.5-5 cm. They are hairy below the veins with 4-9 pairs of secondary veins. The petiole is 3-10 mm long; stipules are interpetiolar, narrowly triangular and cuspidate. The leaf axils are with 2 buds each, the upper ones are developing into spines of about 1 cm long. [2]

The inflorescence is terminal, fasciculate, or solitary flowers. The flowers are bisexual, regular with 5-merous. The sepal is with short tube and narrow lobes and persistent. The petal is salver-shaped with the (1.5-)2.5-4.5 cm long tube and (0.6-)1.5-3 cm long lobes. It is contorted as a bud and hairy inside the tube. The stamens are inserted near the apex of the petal tube, filaments are very short, large anthers and exserted from the petal throat. The ovary is inferior with 2-celled, long style and with 2 large stigmas. [2]

The fruit is a many-seeded spherical berry with a size of 1-1.5 cm in diametre. It is hairy, crowned by the sepal cup. [2]

The seeds shape is like the segments of an orange and they are 5-7 mm long. [2]

Cultivation

No documentation

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

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Figure 1: The line drawing of B. fasciculata (Roxb.) Ridsdale [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Benkara fasciculata (Roxb.) Ridsdale [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2015 Apr 16]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-372256
  2. Lemmens RHMJ, Bunyapraphatsara N, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 12 (3): Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 3. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publication; 2003.
  3. Umberto Q. CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology (5 Volume Set). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2012. p. 1715.