Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm.f.) C.E.C.Fisch.

Last updated: 22 April 2015

Scientific Name

Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm.f.) C.E.C.Fisch.

Synonyms

Breynia accrescens Hayata, Breynia formosana (Hayata) Hayata, Breynia keithii Ridl., Breynia microcalyx Ridl., Breynia officinalis Hemsl., Breynia rhamnoides Müll.Arg. [Illegitimate], Melanthesa ovalifolia Kostel., Melanthesa rhamnoides Blume [Illegitimate], Phyllanthus calycinus Wall. [Invalid], Phyllanthus rhamnoides Retz. [Illegitimate], Phyllanthus sepiarius Roxb. ex Wall. [Invalid], Phyllanthus tinctorius Vahl ex Baill., Phyllanthus tristis A.Juss., Phyllanthus vitis-idea (Burm.f.) D.Koenig ex Roxb., Rhamnus vitis-idaea Burm.f. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Hujan panas, semomah, seruyan [2][3], suruyian [4]
English Indian snowberry [3]
China Xiao ye hei mian shen, shu li zhuang shan qi jing [3]
Thailand Kaangplaa thale, phak wan tua phu [2], phiafān, dapphit [3], kang pla [4]
Philippines Matangulang (Tagalog); sungut-olang (Bisaya); santing (Sulu) [2]
Vietnam C[ut] d[eet] [2][3]
Taiwan Ang-sim-a, ang-chu-a, ang-a-chu [3].

Geographical Distributions

The distribution of Breynia vitis-idaea can be found from India eastward to the Philippines and southward to Peninsular Malaysia. [2]

Botanical Description

B. vitis-idaeafalls under the family of Euphorbiaceae. It is a shrub or treelet that can grow up to 3 m tall and devoid of hairs. [2]

The leaf is egg-shaped. The leaf size is 2.3-5.5 cm x 1.3-3.1 cm and length width ratio is 1.8-2. The base is blunt or rounded at the end as well as the apex and abruptly in a short stiff point. The margin is flat, papery, leaf stalk is 2-4 mm long, stipules are about 2 mm long. [2]

The staminate flowers are 1.3-1.8 mm in diametre, 3.5-5 mm long pedicel, size of sepal is 1.5-2 mm x 1.3-1.8 mm, relatively thin, greenish, lobes are about 0.3 mm long and 0.8 mm long anthers. Pistillate flowers are 1.6-5.3 mm in diameter, pedicel is 2.5-4 mm long, sepal is 1.3-2.8 mm long and greenish, lobes are 0.4-2.2 mm wide while the ovary is cylindrical about 2 mm x 1 mm and apically divided. The stigmas are about 0.2 mm long but not united and split; theypoint towards each other. [2]

The fruit is egg-shaped to spherical and its size is about 4.6-6.3 mm x 4.6-6.7 mm. It is sometimes a bit spiny, with narrow apical crown and red. [2]

The seed size is 3-4.5 mm x 1.8-2.5 mm x 1.7-2.5 mm. [2]

Cultivation

B. vitis-idaea is usually scattered, in forest edges and clearings in evergreen forest, mangrove, swamp forest, bamboo thickets, along rivers and roads and near the beach, from sea-level up to 800 m altitude. [2]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

410

Figure 1: The line drawing of B. vitis-idaea (Burm.f.) C.E.C.Fisch. [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm.f.) C.E.C.Fisch. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2015 Apr 22]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-24457
  2. Van Welzen PC. Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm.f.) C.E.C. Fischer In: Van Valkenburg JLCH, Bunyapraphatsara N, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(2): Medicinal and poisonous plants 2. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher; 2001. p. 122-123.
  3. Philippine Medicinal Plants. Matang-hipon. Breynia rhamnoides (Retz.) Muell.-Arg. [homepage on the internet]. c2014 [updated 2013 Sep; cited 2015 Apr 21]. Available from: http://www.stuartxchange.com/Matang-hipon.html
  4. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research. Compendium of Medicinal Plants Used in Malaysia. Volume 1. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR; 2002. p. 120.