Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm.f.) C.E.C.Fisch.

Last updated: 22 April 2015

Scientific Name

Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm.f.) C.E.C.Fisch.


Breynia accrescens Hayata, Breynia formosana (Hayata) Hayata, Breynia keithii Ridl., Breynia microcalyx Ridl., Breynia officinalis Hemsl., Breynia rhamnoides Müll.Arg. [Illegitimate], Melanthesa ovalifolia Kostel., Melanthesa rhamnoides Blume [Illegitimate], Phyllanthus calycinus Wall. [Invalid], Phyllanthus rhamnoides Retz. [Illegitimate], Phyllanthus sepiarius Roxb. ex Wall. [Invalid], Phyllanthus tinctorius Vahl ex Baill., Phyllanthus tristis A.Juss., Phyllanthus vitis-idea (Burm.f.) D.Koenig ex Roxb., Rhamnus vitis-idaea Burm.f. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Hujan panas, semomah, seruyan [2][3], suruyian [4]
English Indian snowberry [3]
China Xiao ye hei mian shen, shu li zhuang shan qi jing [3]
Thailand Kaangplaa thale, phak wan tua phu [2], phiafān, dapphit [3], kang pla [4]
Philippines Matangulang (Tagalog); sungut-olang (Bisaya); santing (Sulu) [2]
Vietnam C[ut] d[eet] [2][3]
Taiwan Ang-sim-a, ang-chu-a, ang-a-chu [3].

Geographical Distributions

The distribution of Breynia vitis-idaea can be found from India eastward to the Philippines and southward to Peninsular Malaysia. [2]

Botanical Description

B. vitis-idaeafalls under the family of Euphorbiaceae. It is a shrub or treelet that can grow up to 3 m tall and devoid of hairs. [2]

The leaf is egg-shaped. The leaf size is 2.3-5.5 cm x 1.3-3.1 cm and length width ratio is 1.8-2. The base is blunt or rounded at the end as well as the apex and abruptly in a short stiff point. The margin is flat, papery, leaf stalk is 2-4 mm long, stipules are about 2 mm long. [2]

The staminate flowers are 1.3-1.8 mm in diametre, 3.5-5 mm long pedicel, size of sepal is 1.5-2 mm x 1.3-1.8 mm, relatively thin, greenish, lobes are about 0.3 mm long and 0.8 mm long anthers. Pistillate flowers are 1.6-5.3 mm in diameter, pedicel is 2.5-4 mm long, sepal is 1.3-2.8 mm long and greenish, lobes are 0.4-2.2 mm wide while the ovary is cylindrical about 2 mm x 1 mm and apically divided. The stigmas are about 0.2 mm long but not united and split; theypoint towards each other. [2]

The fruit is egg-shaped to spherical and its size is about 4.6-6.3 mm x 4.6-6.7 mm. It is sometimes a bit spiny, with narrow apical crown and red. [2]

The seed size is 3-4.5 mm x 1.8-2.5 mm x 1.7-2.5 mm. [2]


B. vitis-idaea is usually scattered, in forest edges and clearings in evergreen forest, mangrove, swamp forest, bamboo thickets, along rivers and roads and near the beach, from sea-level up to 800 m altitude. [2]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation


No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing


Figure 1: The line drawing of B. vitis-idaea (Burm.f.) C.E.C.Fisch. [2]


  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm.f.) C.E.C.Fisch. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2015 Apr 22]. Available from:
  2. Van Welzen PC. Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm.f.) C.E.C. Fischer In: Van Valkenburg JLCH, Bunyapraphatsara N, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(2): Medicinal and poisonous plants 2. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher; 2001. p. 122-123.
  3. Philippine Medicinal Plants. Matang-hipon. Breynia rhamnoides (Retz.) Muell.-Arg. [homepage on the internet]. c2014 [updated 2013 Sep; cited 2015 Apr 21]. Available from:
  4. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research. Compendium of Medicinal Plants Used in Malaysia. Volume 1. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR; 2002. p. 120.