Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam.

Last updated: 22 Apr 2015

Scientific Name

Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam.


Bruguiera capensis Blume, Bruguiera conjugata (L.) Merr., Bruguiera rhedii Tul., Bruguiera rheedei Blume, Bruguiera rumphii Blume, Bruguiera wightii Blume, Bruguiera zippelii Blume, Rhizophora conjugata L., Rhizophora gymnorrhiza L., Rhizophora palun DC., Rhizophora tinctoria Blanco [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Bakau besar, tumu merah (Peninsular); berus kurong (Sarawak); putut (Sabah) [2]; tumu, tumbus, tumus, betut, pulut, berus kurung, kurung [3]
English Black mangrove, burma mangrove [2], oriental mangrove [3]
Indonesia Putut (Sumatra); tanjang (Java) [2]; kandeka [3]
Thailand Kong-kang hua sum, prasak (Central) [2]; pasak, pang ka hua sum [3]
Singapore Tumu merah [2]
Myanmar Byu-u-talon [2]
Philippines Busaing (General); pototan, bakauan, siap [2]
Cambodia Kong kang, prâsâk' nhii, prâsâk' tôôch [2]
Vietnam V[ej]t d[uf] [2]
Papua New Guinea Mangoro (Pidgin) [2].

Geographical Distributions

Bruguiera gymnorhiza is distributed from tropical East Africa and Madagascar, through South and Southeast Asia, to north-eastern Australia, Micronesia and Polynesia. [2]

Botanical Description

B. gymnorhiza comes from the family of Rhizophoraceae. It is a small to fairly large tree that can reach up to 40 m tall. [2]

The bole measures up to 70(-90) cm in diametre, buttresses are present, with kneed pneumatophores and sometimes with stilt roots. The surface of the bark is fissured to smooth, distinctly or obscurely lenticellate and greyish to blackish or brown. The inner bark is usually pinkish and often fibrous. [2]

The leaves are decussate, simple, leathery, entire, usually pointed at the apex, black dotted below and with petiole. The stipules are present. The flowers are 8-16-merous, either solitary or large, or clustered in up to 6-flowered cymes, small and bisexual. The sepal is lobed while the petals are 2-lobed and with appendages. The stamens are twice as many as the petals and are enclosed in pairs by the pouched petals. The inferior ovary is 2-4-locular with 2 ovules in each cell and the style is obscurely (2-)3(-4)-lobed. [2]

The fruit is a berry, included in and adnate to the sepal tube. It is with persistent sepal lobes, 1(-2)-seeded and viviparous. Seedling is with cotyledons united at the base. The hypocotyl is cigar-shaped, cylindrical or obscurely ribbed, blunt and falls with the fruit. [2]


Bruguiera is a characteristic element of the middle and inner mangrove community, extending into the transitional landward communities, and often in ascending tidal parts of rivers. Its salinity tolerance is 1-3%. Annual rainfall should be over 1000 mm. B. gymnorhiza trees are often the largest and oldest ones of the mangrove, and their presence marks the final stage of the succession of mangrove towards swamp or dryland rain forest. [2]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation


No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing


Figure 1: The line drawing of B. gymnorhiza (L.) Lam. [2]


  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam.[homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Apr 18; cited 2015 Apr 22]. Available from:
  2. Rudjiman. Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Savigny In: Lemmens RHMJ, Wulijarni-Soetjipto N, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 3: Dye and tannin-producing plants. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc Scientific Publishers, 1991; p. 53-55.
  3. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research. Compendium of Medicinal Plants Used in Malaysia. Vol. 1. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC-IMR: 2002. p.122.