Calamus ornatus Blume

Last updated: 22 April 2015

Scientific Name

Calamus ornatus Blume

Synonyms

Calamus aureus Reinw. ex Mart., Calamus ovatus Reinw. ex Kunth, Palmijuncus aureus (Reinw. ex Mart.) Kuntze, Palmijuncus ornatus (Blume) Kuntze, Rotang ornatus (Blume) Baill. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia

Rotan dok (Selangor); sek batang (Pahang); we maliang (Sarawak) [2]; rotan saga badak [3], rotan manau, kelichek, kelesek, rotan machap, rotan machad, rotan manoh, rotan mantang, rotan kembong [4]

English

Rattan [4]

Indonesia

Rotan kesup (Bengkulu); rotan buku dalam (Northern Sulawesi); rotan lambang (Central Sulawesi) [2]

Thailand

Waai chaang (Pattani) [2][3]

Philippines

Limuran (Luzon); rimoran (Palawan); borongan (Mindanao) [2][3].

Geographical Distributions

Calamus ornatus is widespread in a secondary to primary forest from southern Thailand, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi (var.celebicus Becc.) to the Philippines (var. pulverulentus Fernando and var. philippinensis Becc.). [2]

Botanical Description

C. ornatus comes from the family Palmae. It is a massive clustering rattan and dioecious that can climb up to 50 m high. [2]

The stem is without leaf-sheaths that slightly angular, measuring up to 40 mm in diametre and the sheaths measuring up to 70 mm in diametre. The nodes are rather prominent where the internodes measure up to 30 cm long. [2]

The leaves are massive. The leaf-sheath is pale to dark green, armed to various degrees with narrow to large flattened triangular black spines that with yellowish bases and measuring 4 cm x 1 cm. The spines are irregularly arranged and pointing somewhat upward. The knee is conspicuous. The ocrea is short and tattering. The flagellum is massive, dark green, measures up to 10 m long or more and armed with short black yellow-based spines in partial whorls. The petiole is linear, measuring up to 1 m x 4 cm and usually less. The leaflets are regular which are 20-30 on each side where the lowermost measuring 50 cm x 5 cm while the largest one is in the middle measuring 80 cm x 8 cm but decreasing to small measuring 4 cm x 0.5 cm at the tip. The rachis forms subcirrus. The upper surface of the leaflets is conspicuously prickly near the tip and along the upper main veins. [2]

The inflorescence is flagelliferous, measures up to 8 m long and bears 4-6 of the 80 cm long partial inflorescences. The female is with robust reflexed rachillae while the male is with more branched rachillae. [2]

The ripe fruit is ellipsoid, measuring 3 cm x 2 cm, short beaked, covered in 15 vertical rows of yellow brown to matt black scales and slightly lighter in colour at their bases. [2]

The seed is ellipsoid, measuring 2 cm x 0.8 cm, rather angular with grooves on flattened lateral face and covered in sour sarcotesta. The endosperm is homogenous. The seedling-leaf is bifid and shiny green. [2]

Cultivation

C. ornatus is very common and widespread in primary as well as secondary tropical rainforests at altitudes up to 1000 m. It is not found in peat swamps or on extremely poor ridgetop soils. [2]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

425

Figure 1: The line drawing of C. ornatus Blume [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Calamus ornatus Blume. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2015 Apr 22]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-29782
  2. Mogea JP. Calamus ornatus Blume In: Dransfield J, Manokaran N, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 6: Rattans. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc Scientific Publisher, 1993; p. 58-60.
  3. Umberto Q. CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology (5 Volume Set). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2012. p. 720.
  4. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute Medical Research. Compendium of Medicinal Plants Used in Malaysia. Volume 1. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR; 2002. p.133.