Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr.

Last updated: 24 April 2015

Scientific Name

Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr.


Barraldeia madagascariensis Spreng., Barraldeia madagascariensis DC., Carallia arguta Koord. & Valeton, Carallia baraldeia Arn., Carallia calycina Benth., Carallia celebica Blume, Carallia cerisopsitolia Miq., Carallia ceylanica Arn., Carallia confinis Blume, Carallia corymbosa Arn., Carallia cuprea Ridl., Carallia cuspidata Blume, Carallia densiflora Griff., Carallia diplopetala Hand.-Mazz., Carallia floribunda Miq., Carallia integerrima DC., Carallia integrifolia J.Graham, Carallia lanceolaria Wall. [Invalid], Carallia lucida Roxb., Carallia madagascariensis (DC.) Tul., Carallia multiflora Blume, Carallia multiflora Miq. [Illegitimate], Carallia obcordata Wight ex Walp., Carallia octopetala F.Muell. ex Benth., Carallia scortechinii King, Carallia sinensis Arn., Carallia spinulosa Ridl., Carallia timorensis Blume, Carallia viridiflora Ridl., Carallia zeylanica Arn., Demidofia nodosa Dennst., Eugenia cupulifera H.Perrier, Petalotoma brachiata (Lour.) DC. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Mesinga (Peninsular); rabong, radipah (Sarawak) [2]; merpuing, merpoi, mersinga, mesinga, kesinga, ganding, gandang, tengkawa, bongbong, janggut keli [3]
Indonesia Kitamiyang (Sundanese); ringgit dareh (Kubu, Sumatra); sepat (Javanese) [2]; bibis, gigil, kadalen, kukuran, krinching, sepat, tanjang girang, ki kukuran, ki tamiyang [3]
Thailand Chiang phra nang ae (General) [2]; kieng pra, kaw heng, kieng pra nang e [3]
Brunei Meransi, sabar buku [2]
Laos Bong nang, halay, koueum [2]
Myanmar Maniawga-yat [2]
Philippines Bakawan-gubat (General); anosep (Tagalog); katolit  (Iloko) [2]
Cambodia Tra meng [2]
Vietnam Ma m[ax], s[aw]ng m[ar], sen d[ow] [2]

Geographical Distributions

Carallia brachiata can be found at Madagascar, India, Sri Lanka, Burma (Myanmar), Indo-China, southern China, Thailand, throughout the Malesian region, the Solomon Islands and northern Australia. [2]

Botanical Description

C. brachiata comes from the family of Rhizophoraceae. It is a shrubs or small to fairly large trees that can reach up to measure 36(-50) m tall. [2]

The bole is measure up to 70 cm in diameter. The bark surface is smooth to finely cracking or shallowly to deeply fissured, lenticellate, often hoop-marked and grey to reddish-brown or dark brown in colour. The inner bark is striate, yellowish-brown to pinkish-brown, creamy to yellow-brown sapwood and with prominent rays. The twigs are solid. [2]

The leaves are decussate, simple, elliptical to obovate or narrowly obovate in shape. The margin is entire to dentate or serrate and often with black dots beneath. The stipules are interpetiolar and lance-shaped. [2]

The flowers are in a sessile or peduncled cyme or solitary, bisexual, sessile or stalked and with 2 bracteoles. The sepal is (4-)5-8-lobed. The free petals are 5-8 and clawed. The stamens are twice the number of petals. They are generally free and unequal in length. The disk is annular. The ovary is inferior or semi-inferior and 5-8-locular with 2 ovules in each cell (rarely 1-locular with 10-12 ovules). The stigma is discoid or headed. [2]

The fruit is a 1-celled berry, small, pulpy, crowned by floral remains, 1(-5)-seeded and it is pink to red in colour when ripe. [2]

The seed is an ellipsoid or kidney-shaped. Seedling is with epigeal germination. The green cotyledons are leafy. The hypocotyl is elongated. All leaves are arranged opposite. [2]

C. brachiata occasionally grows with small buttresses (up to 1 m high) and sometimes with small stilt roots or aerial roots at the base. [2]


Carallia species occur scattered in lowland to montane forest up to 1800 m altitude. They are found in primary or less often secondary forest, in mixed dipterocarp forest, freshwater swamp forest, kerangas and on hills and ridges, mostly on peat soils or podzolic soils; rarely in savannas. [2]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation


No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing


Figure 1: The line drawing of C. brachiata (Lour.) Merr. [2]


  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Apr 18; cited 2015 Apr 23]. Available from:
  2. Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr. In: Sosef MSM, Hong LT, Prawirohatmodjo S, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5 (3): Timber trees: Lesser-known timbers. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher; 1998.
  3. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute Medical Research. Compendium of Medicinal Plants Used in Malaysia. Volume 1. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR; 2002. p.146.