Celastrus paniculatus Willd.

Last updated: 29 April 2015

Scientific Name

Celastrus paniculatus Willd.

Synonyms

Catha paniculata Scheidw., Ceanothus paniculatus Roth, Celastrus alnifolius D.Don, Celastrus euphlebiphyllus (Hayata) Makino & Nemoto, Celastrus euphlebiphyllus (Hayata) Kaneh., Celastrus metzianus Turcz., Celastrus nutans Roxb., Celastrus pubescens Wall. [Invalid], Celastrus rothianus Schult. [1]

Vernacular Name

English Black oil tree, intellect tree, climbing-staff plant, oriental bittersweet [2][3]
China Deng you teng ,dian nan she teng, da you guo, hong guo teng, xiao huang guo, huan zhui nan she teng [2]
India Malkakni, malkamni, malkangni (Hindi); polulavam (Malayalam); jyotishmati, kanguni, sphutabandhani, svarnalota (Sanskrit); valuluvai (Tamil) [2]
Indonesia Sila (Javanese) [3][4][5]
Thailand Kra thong laai [3][4][5]
Philippines Bilogo (Tagalog) [4][5]
Vietnam D[aa]y s[aw]ng m[as]u [4][5].

Geographical Distributions

Celastrus pani­culatus is widely distributed from India, Burma (Myanmar) to southern China, Taiwan and throughout Southeast Asia (except Borneo) to Australia and New Caledonia. This plant mainly found in thickets at 200-1800 m altitude. [4]

Botanical Description

C. pani­culatus comes from the family of Celastraceae. It is a climbing, deciduous, usually dioecious shrub that can reach up to 10 m tall. [4]

The stem can grows up to 25 cm in diametre, with cylindrical branchlets and hairy. [4]

The leaves are arranged spirally, simple, elliptical to suborbicu­lar to oblong, measure 5-15 cm x 2.5-6 cm, with wedge-shaped base, obtuse or rounded, acute at apex, acuminate, obtuse, rarely notched at the extremity, with remotely crenulate margin, elevated midrib and smooth. The petiole is 0.5-1.5 cm long with small stipules. [4]

The inflorescence is an axillary or panicle termi­nal, usually thrice to multi-compound, spreading, (2-)5-10(-20) cm long and with 0.6-1 cm long peduncle. Its flowers are unisexual, 5-merous, pale green­ish, with 1.5-3.5 mm long pedicel, accrescent to 3-6 mm and articulate at the base. The sepal is bell-shaped, per­sistent, with semi-orbicular lobes, short-ciliate and it measures about 1 mm x 1.5 mm. The petals are oblong to obovate-oblong, ob­tuse, entire, and measure 2.5-3 mm x 1-1.5 mm. The disk is cupular and obscurely 5-lobed. [4]

The male flower have stamens of about 3 mm long, with columnar pistil and about 1 mm long while in the fe­male flowers, staminodes are about 1 mm long, with 2-2.5 mm long pistil, superior ovary, spherical, (in)completely 3-celled, ovules 1-2 per cell, with colum­nar style and 3-lobed stigma. [4]

The fruit is a nearly spherical capsule, 3-valved loculicidally with broad-elliptical valves, measuring 5-10 mm x 5-8 mm and 3-6-seeded. The seed is ellipsoid, measures 3.5-5 mm x 2-3 mm, enveloped by a fleshy orange to crimson aril, yellowish to reddish brown, smooth or with obscure areoles. The albumen is copious, with thin cotyle­dons and broadly spathulate. [4]

The seedling is with epigeal germination. [4]

Cultivation

No documentation

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

457

Figure 1: The line drawing of C. paniculatus Willd. [4]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Celastrus paniculatus Willd.[homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Apr 18; cited 2015 Apr 28]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2707638
  2. Philippine Medicinal Plants. Bilogo. Celastrus paniculatus Willd. [homepage on the internet] c2014. [updated 2013 Sep; cited 2015 Apr 16] Available from http://www.stuartxchange.com/Bilogo.html
  3. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research. Compendium of Medicinal Plants Used in Malaysia. Volume 1. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR; 2002. p.158.
  4. Ong HC. Celastrus paniculatus Willd. In: van Valkenburg JLCH, Bunyapraphatsara N, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(2): Medicinal and poisonous plants 2. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher; 2001. p. 147-149.
  5. Umberto Q. CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology (5 Volume Set). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2012. p. 869.