Clausena sanki (Perr.) Molino

Last updated: 05 May 2015

Scientific Name

Clausena sanki (Perr.) Molino

Synonyms

Clausena anisum-olens (Blanco) Merr., Clausena emarginata C.C.Huang, Clausena grandifolia Merr., Clausena laxifolia Quisumb. & Merr., Clausena loheri Merr. Clausena palawanensis Elmer [Invalid], Clausena todayensis Elmer, Clausena warburgii G.Perkins, Clausena warburgii Perkins [1]

Vernacular Name

Philippines Anis, kayumanis (Tagalog); danglais (Bagobo). [2] [3]

Geographical Distributions

Clausena sanki is endemic to the Philippines and Borneo. In the Philippines, it is distributed all over the archipelago. [2]

C. sanki grows naturally in the understorey of rainforests, on various soil types (including limestone) and up to 1500 m altitude. [2]

Botanical Description

C. sanki falls under the family of Rutaceae. It is an evergreen shrub or small tree that can reach up to 2-6(-15) m tall and bears some essential-oil glands on all aerial parts which emit a strong anise or anise-like smell when crushed. [2]

The leaves are arranged alternately, imparipinnately compound, measure 20-55(-100) cm long and hairless to hairy. The petiolules are 1-5 mm long. The leaflets are 7-13(-19), alternate to subopposite, ovate to lance-shaped, measuring 3-25 cm x 1-10 cm where the largest ones is near the apex, oblique at the base, undulate-crenulate at the margin, acute-acuminate at the apex and densely dotted with pellucid glands. [2]

The inflorescence is a terminal (rarely axillary) measures 6-40 cm long and with a conical panicle. The pedicel measures up to 2 mm long. [2]

The flowers are spherical in bud measuring 6-8 mm in diametre when opened, regular, with 5-merous and fragrant. The green sepal is 5-lobed measures 0.5-1 mm long. There are 5 free petals, which are ovate-elliptical, measure 4-5 mm long, with membranaceous and whitish-green. There are 10 free stamens where the filaments are geniculate, with white and yellow anthers. The ovary is spherical to somewhat pentagonal, measures about 1 mm long and wide; with 5-locular, born on gynophore is 0.3-0.5 mm long, with the style is 1 mm long and the stigma is slightly 5-lobed. [2]

The fruit is a berry with 1(-3)-seeded, slightly spherical (rarely ovoid), measuring 0.8-1.6 cm in diametre and whitish-green but turns pinkish at maturity. [2]

The seed is green. [2]

Cultivation

C. sanki is sporadically cultivated in gardens in China, Taiwan, Vietnam and Indonesia. In cultivation in Indonesia, it only performed well up to 500 m altitude. In Solok (west-central Sumatra), it grows well in 2000 mm annual rainfall maximum in March and November and a minimum of about 75 mm per month from June to August, with maximum temperatures of about 30°C and minima of about 20°C throughout the year, and on poor, acid (pH 4.0-4.2) soils. [2]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

490

Figure 1: The line drawing of C. sanki (Perr.) Molino (synonym C. anisum-olens) [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Clausena sanki (Perr.) Molino[homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Apr 18; cited 2015 May 05]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2724842
  2. Molino JF. Clausena anisum-olens (Blanco) Merrill. In: Oyen LPA, Nguyen Xuan Dung, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 19: Essential-oil plants. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher, 1999; p. 86-89.
  3. Quattrocchi U. CRC World dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology (5 Volume set). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2012. p. 988.