Clerodendrum indicum (L.) Kuntze

Last updated: 06 May 2015

Scientific Name

Clerodendrum indicum (L.) Kuntze

Synonyms

Clerodendrum longicolle G.Mey., Clerodendrum mite (L.) Vatke, Clerodendrum semiserratum Wall. [Invalid], Clerodendrum siphonanthus R.Br. [Illegitimate], Clerodendrum verticillatum Roxb. ex D.Don [Invalid], Ovieda mitis L., Ovieda verticillatum Roxb. ex D.Don [Invalid], Siphonanthus angustifolius Willd., Siphonanthus indicus L. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Ganja ganja, penatoh [2][3]
Indonesia Genje (Sundanese); sekar petak (Javanese); ringgo dipo (Palembang) [2][3]
Thailand Thao yaai mom (Central); phayaa raak dieo (Peninsular); leng chon tai (Northern) [2][3]
Vietnam ng[oj]c n[uwx] [aas]n d[ooj] [2][3]
Nepal Aiklinge, rauru, syanka mali [3]

Geographical Distributions

Clerodendrum indicum is a native to India and Nepal, eastward to Burma (Myanmar), southern China, Indo-China, Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia; naturalised in Indonesia, Madagascar, southern USA, West Indies and northern South America. [2]

Botanical Description

C. indicum comes from the family of Capparaceae. It is an annual, erect, branched herb up to 1 m tall, with yellowish, glandular hairs, vis­cid and stinking. [2]

There are 3-5 leaflets. The central leaflet measures 1-3(-5.5) cm x (0.3-) 0.5-1.5 cm, with wedge-shaped base, acute to obtuse apex, and thinly herbaceous, while the petiole is 0.5-6 cm long. [2]

The raceme is short to elongate and with largely actinomorphic flowers. The sepals are oblong, and measure (2.5-) 6-7 mm long, while the petals are oblong, measure (4-)7-12 mm long, thin, hairless and yellow. There are (8)10-20(-30) stamens which gradu­ally increase towards the abaxial side. The bluish anthers are 1.5-2 mm long. [2]

The capsule is linear, erect, cen­tripetal-veined, measures (1.5-)6-8(-10) cm long and with beak  2.5-4(-7) mm long. [2]

The seeds are red-brown and 1.2 mm in diametre, with narrow cleft, with strong cross-ribs and faint con­centric ribs. [2]

Cultivation

C. indicum easily escapes cultivation through its stolons. In Java cultivated from sea-level up to 1200 m altitude; naturalised in grassy, sunny or slightly shaded localities near human settlements from sea-level up to 500 m altitude. [2]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

493

Figure 1: The line drawing of C. indicum (L.) Kuntze [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Clerodendrum indicum (L.) Kuntze[homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2015 May 05]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-42702
  2. van Valkenburg JLCH, Bunyapraphatsara N. Clerodendrum indicum (L.) Kuntze In: van Valkenburg JLCH, Bunyapraphatsara N, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(2): Medicinal and poisonous plants 2. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher; 2001. p.175.
  3. Quattrocchi U. CRC World dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology (5 Volume set). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2012. p. 1012.