Croton tiglium L.

Last updated: 08 May 2015

Scientific Name

Croton tiglium L.

Synonyms

Croton acutus Thunb., Croton arboreus Shecut, Croton birmanicus Müll.Arg., Croton camaza Perr., Croton himalaicus D.G.Long, Croton jamalgota Buch.-Ham., Croton muricatus Blanco [Illegitimate], Croton officinalis (Klotzsch) Alston [Illegitimate], Croton pavana Buch.-Ham., Halecus verus Raf., Kurkas tiglium (L.) Raf., Oxydectes birmanica (Müll.Arg.) Kuntze, Oxydectes blancoana Kuntze, Oxydectes pavana (Buch.-Ham.) Kuntze, Oxydectes tiglium (L.) Kuntze, Tiglium officinale Klotzsch [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Changkian, chemengkian, bua patu (Peninsular) [2]; cengkian, chemkian, cemekian, cemengkian, jemekian,pua batu, tubai buah [3], bori [4]
English Purging croton [2], physic-nut, croton oil plant [3], purgative croton, true croton [4]
China Pa-tou [3] ba dou [4]
India Geyapal, jhamālaghōṭā, jepal gota (Hindi); berada, danti, jaapaalada, jaapala, japala beeja, japalada bija, nepalada, nervalada (Kannada); cadalavanacu, nalavanakku, neervalam, valam (Malayalam); arabi erand, jamalagota, jempal, jepal, jeyapal, Jopaala, nogli errand (Marathi); jai (Orathi); jaipal (Punjabi); ayapala, kanakaphala, naepala, titteriphala (Sanskrit); chiduram, naganam, nakanam, nakakenti, neervalam, nirvalam, siduram, valam (Tamil); naepal vaema, nepala vithalu, nepalavitua (Telugu); jamaal gota, jamal gota taza, jamalgota muddabir, maghz jamalgota ( Urdu) [4]
Indonesia Simalakian (Minangkabau); kemalakian (Sundanese); ceraken (Javanese)[2] pencahar, adal-adal, simalakian [3]
Thailand Ma khaang (Northern); salot (Central) [2]; salood [3]
Laos Mark tot [2], kok mak tong [4]
Myanmar Kana kho [4]
Philippines Tuba (most dialects); saligau (Ilokano, Ibanag); ubing-makaisa (Bikol, Tagalog) [2]
Cambodia Bat khlok [2][4]
Vietnam Ba d[aaj]u, m[aws]c v[as]t, cong kh[oo]I [2], ba đậu, cây ba đậu [4]
Korea Keuloton [4]
Japan Hazu, kuroton [4]
Denmark Oliekroton, Kroton, purgerkroton [4]
Hungary Hashajtó kroton, krotoncserje [4]
Netherlands Crotonolie, purgeerkorrels [4]
Poland Kroton przeczyszczający [4]
Sweden Krotonoljeträd [4]
France Bois de Moluques, bois de Pavane, croton cathartique, croton médicinal, tiglium, vrai croton [4]
Germany Krotonölbaum, krotonöl (oil), purgierkroton, tiglibaum [4]
Italy Croton tiglio, tiglio drastico [4]
Spain Crotoncillo, piñón de indias (seeds) [4]
Russia Kroton rvotnyj, kroton slabitel'nyj [4]
Portugal Crotone [4]
Republic Czech Kroton počistivý [4]

Geographical Distributions

Croton tiglium is from India and Sri Lanka, eastward to China, Indo-China, Thailand and throughout Malaysia. [2]

Botanical Description

C. tiglium comes from the family of Euphorbiaceae. It is a shrub or treelet that can reach up to 3 m tall. [2]

The leaves are ovate, measuring 7.5-17 cm x 4-9.5 cm, with broadly rounded to attenuate base, with 2 sessile to distinct glands stalked on the margin, obtuse to acute at apex, with very shallowly serrate margin, with a few star-shaped hairs at the lower surface, basally 5-nerved, with caduceus stipules, awl-shaped and measuring 1.5-3.5 mm long. [2]

The inflorescence is hairless while the flowers are staminate. The sepals are slightly hairless and with bearded tips while the petals are narrowly oblong and hairy. There are 15-20 hairless stamens with small disk glands. The sepals are villous at the base, petals are absent, with obscure disk, annular and with oblong ovary. [2]

The fruit is obtusely trigonous, measure 2-2.5 cm in diametre, white and scabrid with star-shaped hairs. [2]

Cultivation

C. tiglium is found in a wide range of vegetation and soil types, up to 1500 m altitude, planted around villages. It mainly flowers from October to May in Java. [2]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

521

Figure 1: The line drawing of C. tiglium L. [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Croton tiglium L.[homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2015 May 06]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-51357
  2. van Welzen PC, Esser HJ. Croton griffithii Hook.f. In: van Valkenburg JLCH, Bunyapraphatsara N, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(2): Medicinal and poisonous plants 2. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher; 2001. p. 202-203.
  3. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute Medical Research. Compendium of medicinal plants used in Malaysia. Volume 1. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR; 2002. p. 227.
  4. Philippine Medicinal Plants. Tuba. Croton tiglium Linn. [homepage on the Internet]. c2014 [updated 2013 Sep; cited 2015 May 20] Available from: http://www.stuartxchange.com/Tuba.html