Cyathula prostrata (L.) Blume

Last updated: 11 May 2015

Scientific Name

Cyathula prostrata (L.) Blume

Synonyms

Achyranthes alternifolia L.f., Achyranthes debilis Poir., Achyranthes diffusa Moench, Achyranthes globosa Pers., Achyranthes mollis Lepr. ex Seub., Achyranthes prostrata L., Achyranthes repens B.Heyne ex Roth [Illegitimate], Cyathula alternifolia Druce, Cyathula geniculata Lour., Cyathula globosa Moq., Cyathula prostrata var. prostrata, Cyathula repens Moq., Desmochaeta globosa Schult., Desmochaeta micrantha DC., Desmochaeta prostrata (L.) DC., Desmochaeta repens Schult., Pupalia prostrata (L.) Mart. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Nyarang, menjarang, keremak [2][3], nyarang putih, jarang-jarang, ekur kucing, penjarang, senjarang, penjarang ayam, angkup merah, bayam rusa, bayam pasir, rumput kelulut merah,keremak [4]
English Pastureweed [3]
China Bei xian [3]
Indonesia Rumput jarang-jarang (Malay); ranggitan (Javanese); rai-rai fofoheka (Ternate) [2][3]
Thailand Yaa phaanngu lek (Eastern); yaa phaanghu daeng (Central) [2][3]
Philippines Dayang, tuhod-manok (Tagalog); bakbaka (Iloko) [2]
Cambodia Andot ko [2][3]
Vietnam D[ow]n d[or]g[oj]ng, c[or] x[uw][ows]c, b[oo]ng d[or] [2][3]
Papua New Guinea Kinjan (Gaikorovi, Sepik Province) [2][3]
France Cyathule couchée [3]

Geographical Distributions

Cyathula prostrata is distributed from Africa to China and Australia, throughout Southeast Asia and introduced in Central America. [2]

This weedy occurs in shaded localities, along roadsides, in teak forests, secondary forests, often gregariously and from sea level up to 1650 m altitude. [2]

Botanical Description

C. prostrata comes from the family of Amaranthaceae. It is an annual to perennial herb, which can grow up to a height of 30-50 cm tall. It is also an erect or ascending herb with its rooting at the nodes. [2]

The stem obtusely quadrangular, thickened above the nodes, often tinged with red, covered with patent and fine hairs. [2]

The leaves arrangement are opposite, simple and rhomboid-obovate to rhomboid-oblong form. The size measures between 1.3-15 cm x 0.7-6.5 cm. The base is contracted or narrowed, rounded, apex triangular, acute to obtuse, entire, ciliate, with margin or blade often tinged red and short petiole. [2]

The inflorescence is erect, elongated raceme, terminal and in highest leaf-axils. The leaflets are densely hairy. The stalk of inflorescence measures 1-12 cm long. The flowers are in small clusters. The stalk of individual flower is short. It is erect before anthesis and reflexed in fruiting. The bracts are ovate and acuminate. There are 2-3 bisexual flowers at the lower clusters and up to 20 red steriles. The hooked awns are towards the apex with fewer sterile flowers. The apex has only solitary bisexual flowers. Its flowers are small with five sepals. The 2.5-3 mm long bisexual flowers are ovate-oblong, sharp and short tipped. [2]

The flowers are dull pale green, hairless within and externally clothed with patent long and white hairs. The tepals of sterile flowers measure 1.7-2.5 mm long but without a stalk. The stamens have 5 filaments that unite at base and free parts measure 1 mm long. The ovary is superior and obovoid with 1-celled, its funicle is short and in filiform style. The stigma is capitellate. [2]

The fruit is an ellipsoid utricle, measures 1.5-2 mm long, thin-walled, hairless, 1-seeded and surrounded by stiff perianth. The seed is ovoid or ellipsoidal, measures 1-1.5 mm long and shiny brown. The seedling is with epigeal germination. [2]

Cultivation

No documentation

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

530

Figure 1: The line drawing of C. prostrata (L.) Blume [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Cyathula prostrata (L.) Blume[homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Apr 18; cited 2015 May 06]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2749233
  2. Chuakul W, Soonthornchareonnon N, Ruangsomboon O. Cyathula prostrata (L.) Blume In: van Valkenburg JLCH, Bunyapraphatsara N, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(2): Medicinal and poisonous plants 2. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher; 2001. p. 206-207.
  3. Philippine Medicinal Plants. Dayang. Cyathula prostrata (Linn.) Blume. [homepage on the Internet] c2014. [updated 2013 Apr: cited 2015 May 11] Available from: http://www.stuartxchange.org/Dayang.html
  4. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute Medical Research. Compendium of medicinal plants used in Malaysia. Volume 1. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR; 2002. p. 235.