Cyrtosperma merkusii (Hassk.) Schott

Last updated: 11 May 2015

Scientific Name

Cyrtosperma merkusii (Hassk.) Schott

Synonyms

Arisacontis chamissonis Schott, Cyrtosperma bantamense Koord., Cyrtosperma chamissonis (Schott) Merr., Cyrtosperma cuspidilobum Schott, Cyrtosperma dubium Schott, Cyrtosperma edule Schott, Cyrtosperma ferox N.E.Br. & Linden, Cyrtosperma intermedium Schott, Cyrtosperma lasioides Griff., Cyrtosperma nadeaudianum J.W.Moore, Lasia merkusii Hassk. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia
Geli-geli, keladi pari, birah hutan [2][3][4]
English
Giant swamp taro, swamp taro [2], baba, giant taro [5], galland [6]
China
Qu zi yu [4]
Indonesia
Umbi daluga [4]
Thailand
Kli (Malay-Pattani) [2]
Philippines
Palau (Bisaya); galiang (Bikol) [2]; palauan [4][5][6]
Vietnam
H[aj]t cong [2]
Hawaii
Maota [4][5][6]
Fiji
Via, viakana [4]
Papua New Guinea
Swamp taro [4]
France
Sigune, taro giante des marais, taro des atolls [4]
Spain
Gallan [4]

Geographical Distributions

The origin of Cyrtosperma merkusii is not known but possibly in western Malaysia or in Melanesia (Solomon Islands). It is now distributed wild and cultivated from Peninsular Malaysia, throughout Malaysia to Oceania, but it is absent in Sulawesi, the Moluccas and main land Papua New Guinea. It has certainly been introduced in Micronesia and Polynesia and now as a major staple food on many islands. It is rare in Sumatra and Java, but quite common in Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei and the Philippines. [2]

C. merkusii is a tropical species, occurring between latitudes 18°N (Mariana Islands) and 20°S (Cook Islands), in lowland swamp forests, open swamps or in man-made swamp pits. [2]

Botanical Description

C. merkusii comes from the family of Araceae. It is a robust to gigantic herb that can reach up to 4 m tall and grows solitarily or in clumps. [2]

The leaves are several (6-8), with arrowhead-shaped and rarely hastate. The petiole is cylindrical, measures 0.4-3 m long, measuring up to 10 cm in diametre, usually heavily to very heavily armed with stout, conical, straight or upturned spines towards the base but unarmed in some cultivated forms, with a prominent solid pulvinus at the apex and with longitudinal air ducts inside. The blade measuring 0.3-1.3 m x 0.8 m, which sometimes armed abaxially and held horizontally to vertically with the posterior lobes down. The posterior lobes are usually somewhat longer than the anterior one. The primary venation of the anterior lobe is curvinerved in small lobes to pinnate in large lobes. [2]

The inflorescence is solitary on a peduncle which is similar but usually shorter than the petiole. The spathe is 2.5-30 cm long, thick and fleshy, very variable in size, colour and shape. It is white, yellow, green or purple and erect to deflexed to roll back. The spadix is 2-24 cm long, as long as or more than half the length of the spathe. It is sessile or with a short stalk. The flowers are bisexual and hexamerous. The ovary is unilocular, (1-)2-ovulate and with wet receptive stigma. The stamens are exserted from the tepals at male anthesis. [2]

The fruit is a berry, reddish-orange, sessile and with 1(-2)-seeded. [2]

The seed is campylotropous, almost circular in profile to shallowly kidney-shaped, measures 5-11 mm long, brown, with about 3 raised, warty, longitudinal crests or sparsely and more or less irregularly warty and faintly crested. [2]

The rhizome is short and slender to tuberous and very large, cylindrical, measures up to 2 m long and measuring 0.6 m in diametre. It is sometimes spherical, weighing up to 70 kg or even more and produces few to many suckers. [2]

Cultivation

C. merkusii requires high temperatures, and suffers chilling injury and does not tolerate temperatures below 4°C. It mostly grows at sea level in swamps, but can be grown under year-round high rainfall as a rain fed crop up to 150 m altitude. The ideal growing conditions are natural swamp lands rich in humus, measuring about 0.5-2 m deep with slow-flowing irrigation water. C. merkusii is a very hardy plant, tolerating or withstanding drought (on atolls often because of the porosity of the soil), salt seawater sprays, brackish water and hurricanes or storms much better than most other aroid crops. [2]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

540

Figure 1: The line drawing of C. merkusii (Hassk.) Schott [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Cyrtosperma merkusii (Hassk.) Schott[homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2015 May 07]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-54892
  2. Cyrtosperma merkusii (Hassk.) SchottIn: Flach M, Rumawas F, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 9: Plants yielding non-seed carbohydrates. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher; 1996.
  3. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute Medical Research. Compendium of medicinal plants used in Malaysia. Volume 1. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR; 2002. p. 245.
  4. Lim TK. Edible medicinal and non-medicinal plants. Volume 9, modified stems, roots, bulbs. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer; 2014. p. 493.
  5. Quattrocchi U. CRC World dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology (5 Volume set). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2012. p. 1304-1305.
  6. Philippine Medicinal Plants. Palauan. Cyrtosperma merkusii (Hassk.) Schott. [homepage on the Internet] c2014. [updated 2013 Mar; cited 2015 May 12] Available from: http://www.stuartxchange.org/Palauan.html