Dysoxylum cauliflorum Hiern

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Last updated: 22 May 2015

Scientific Name

Dysoxylum cauliflorum Hiern


Alliaria beccariana Kuntze, Alliaria hiernii Kuntze, Dysoxylum angustifoliolum Merr., Dysoxylum beccarianum C.DC., Dysoxylum foxworthyi Elmer [Invalid], Epicharis angustifoliola (Merr.) Harms, Epicharis foxworthyi (Elmer) Harms [Invalid], Epicharis hierniana (Hiern) Harms [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Dedali, langga ayer, pokok parong (Peninsular); uchong chit (Iban, Sabah) balun ijok, guatak, kuleum, pudu sawa [2]
English Stem dysoxylum [2]
Indonesia Mensiah rima (Sumatra)[2]

Geographical Distributions

Dysoxylum cauliflorum is distributed throughout Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo and the Philippines; possibly also in Burma (Myanmar). D. cauliflorum is found scattered and is rarely common. It occurs up to 2000(-2900) m altitude in evergreen or rarely semi-deciduous, primary or sometimes secondary forest and re­growth. [2]

Botanical Description

D. cauliflorum comes from the Meliaceae family. It is an evergreen, dioecious (seldom with bi­ sexual flowers) shrubs or small to fairly large or rarely large trees that can reach up to measure 35(-47) m tall. [2]

The bole is vari­able in shape, branchless for up to measure 20(-28) m, up to measure 80(-150) cm in diametre, sometimes with up to measure 3(-5) m high but­tresses and sometimes fluted at the base. The bark surface is mooth and lenticellate to fis­sured, becomes cracked and it is grey or grey-brown to blackish in colour. The inner bark is often fibrous, straw-coloured to brown, sometimes with pinkish bands or mot­tled brown to orange and often fragrant or sometimes sour or pungent. [2]

The leaves are arranged spirally or seldom opposite, paripinnate or rarely imparipin­nate and exstipulate. The leaflets are opposite and entire. [2]

The flowers are in an axillary to cauliflorous, paniculate to race­mose inflorescence, sometimes reduced to a fasci­cle or solitary and functionally unisexual. The sepal is 3-5(-6lobed or with free sepals. The petals are 3-6 and free or adnate to the lower half of the staminal tube. The staminal tube is cylindrical to urn-shaped and with 6-16 anthers. The disk is free. The ovary is superior and with 2-6-locular where 1-2 seeds are in each cell. The style head is capitate to discoid. [2]

The fruit is a 2-6-valved capsule. [2]

The seed is usually with an opaque and orange-yellow to red aril or sar­cotesta. Seedling is with hypogeal germination. The cotyledons are occasionally emergent and peltate. The hypocotyl is not or only slightly elongated. The first pair of leaves are arranged opposite or spiral and they are simple to 5-foliolate. [2]


No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

No documentation.

Preclinical Data

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.


No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing


Figure 1: The line drawing of D. cauliflorum Hiern [2]


  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Dysoxylum cauliflorum Hiern[homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2015 May 20]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2779912
  2. Dysoxylum cauliflorum HiernIn: Sosef MSM, Hong LT, Prawirohatmodjo S, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5(3): Timber trees: Lesser-known timbers. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher; 1998.