Ehretia microphylla Lam.

Last updated: 22 May 2015

Scientific Name

Ehretia microphylla Lam.

Synonyms

Carmona heterophylla Cav., Carmona microphylla (Lam.) G.Don, Carmona retusa (Vahl) Masam., Cordia coromandeliana Retz. ex A.DC., Cordia retusa Vahl, Ehretia buxifolia Roxb., Ehretia coromandeliana Retz. ex A.DC., Ehretia heterophylla Spreng., Ehretia monopyrena Gottschling & Hilger [1]

Vernacular Name

English

Fukien tea [2], Philippine tea tree, scorpionbush, wild tea [3]

China

Ji ji shu [3]

India

Baapanaburi, bapana buri, barranki, boote, buri, chepaku, eleadike soppu, gulpole, kattu vetrilai, kuruvinci, nakkatoka, nomu chettu, piccaka, pisniki, veralchedi, yenne bootige, yenne budiga [2]

Indonesia

Kinangan, serut lanang (Javanese); pinaan (Madurese) [3][4]

Thailand

Khoi cheen (Bangkok); chaa yeepun (Central); chaa (Chiang Mai) [3][4]

Philippines

Putputai (Bikol); alangit (Bisaya); tsaang gubat (Tagalog) [4]

Vietnam

Kim li[ee]n, c[uf]m r[uj]n, b[uf]m r[uj]n [3][4]

Japan

Fuku-mangi, fukumangi [4]

Geographical Distributions

Carmona is a monotypic genus. Carmona retusa is the only species found from India eastward to Southern China, Taiwan and Japan, and further south throughout Malesia to New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. It is often grown as an ornament. It is rare or locally common species found in open, dry, sunny habitats, such as thickets, shrub vegetation and teak forests at low and moderate elevations. [4]

Botanical Description

C. retusa comes from the Boraginaceae family. It is a shrub or much-branched small tree which can grow up to 1-4(-10) m tall. The young branches are hispid and with buds or short shoots that produce clusters of leaves and inflorescences. [4]

The leaves are simple, arranged alternately, obo­vate to spoon-shaped, measuring 1-6(-10) cm x 0.5-2.5(-4) cm, thick, gradually narrow towards the base, toothed or crenate towards apex, with short rigid hairs and with 5 lateral veins. The petiole measures 0.1-0.5(-1) cm long but stipules are absent. [4]

The inflorescence is in the axil of leaves or on the apex of short shoots while the flowers are in 2-6 fasci­cles or in a cyme. [4]

The flowers are actinomorphic, bisexual, (4-)5-merous and pedicelled. The sepal is 3-6 mm long, with (4-)5 linear lobes and densely hairy inside. The petal is sub-rotate, white, measures 6-9 mm in diametre, with tube about 2 mm long, widening and with spread lobes 2.5-4.5 mm long. There are (4-)5 stamens with filaments 2.5-3.5 mm long while the anthers are oblong. The ovary is supe­rior, spherical, measures about 1 mm in diametre, and with deeply bifid style 4.5-6 mm long. [4]

The drupaceous fruit is spherical, measures 5-6 mm in diametre, red or yellow, with 1-4 seeds and it does not break up into pyrenes. [4]

The seeds have straight or slightly curved embryo and are embedded in thin albumen. Seedling is with epigeal germination. The cotyledons are leafy and green while the hypocotyl is elongated. [4]

Cultivation

No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

No documentation.

Preclinical Data

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Dosage

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

588

Figure 1: The line drawing of Carmona retusa (Vahl) Masam.(synonym of E. microphylla Lam.) [4]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Ehretia microphylla Lam.[homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2010 Mar 23; cited 2015 May 19]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2784796
  2. Quattrocchi UFLS. CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. (5 Volume set). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2012. p. 824-825.
  3. Philippine Medicinal Plants. Tsaang gubat. Carmona retusa (Vahl.) Masam.[homepage on the Internet]. c2014 [updated 2014 Jan; cited 2015 May 22] Available from: http://www.stuartxchange.com/Tsaang.html
  4. Guevara AP. Carmona retusa (Vahl) Masam. In: de Padua LS, Bunyapraphatsara N, Lemmens RHMJ, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(1): Medicinal and poisonous plants 1. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher, 1999; p. 178-181.