Enydra fluctuans DC.

Last updated: 27 May 2015

Scientific Name

Enydra fluctuans  DC.

Synonyms

Coreopsis anagallis (Gardner) E.H.L.Krause, Cryphiospermum repens P.Beauv., Enydra heloncha DC., Enydra linifolia DC. ex Sch.Bip., Enydra longifolia DC., Enydra paludosa (Reinw. ex Reinw.) DC., Enydra woollsii F.Muell., Meyera fluctuans (Lour.) Spreng., Phyllimena longifolia Blume ex DC. [Invalid], Phyllimena paludosa Blume ex DC. [Invalid], Tetraotis longifolia Blume, Tetraotis longifolia Reinw., Tetraotis paludosa Reinw. ex Blume [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia

Chengkeru, kangkong kerbau [2][3]

English

Buffalo spinach [2][3], water cress [4]

India

Achari, bramhi, chakrangi, halasi, harhuch, harkuch, haruch, helanchi, helencha, helonchi sak, hidmircha, hila-mochika, himamocika, hincha, hinche, hingcha, jalabramhi, komprek-tujombi, mambi, matsyakshi, matsyangi, mocha rochi, sasasrutih, shankhadhara, trinittaparni, vishaghni [4]

Indonesia

Ambur (Sumatra) [2], godobos (West Java); kokoha (West Ja­va) [3]

Thailand

Phakbung-ruam (Central); phakbung­pling (Northern); phakpaeng (Northern) [2]

Laos

Bungz ping [2]

Philippines

Kangkong kal­abaw [2]

Cambodia

Kanting ring [2]

Vietnam

Rau ng[oor] tr[aa]u, rau ng[oor] th[ow]m [2]

Geographical Distributions

Enydra fluctuans is an old world species, possibly of Indo­-Chinese origin, which occurs in tropical Asia and Africa. It is common in all countries of Southeast Asia, wild and sometimes cultivated. [2]

This herb occurs in and along ditches, water courses, margins of fish ponds and rice fields, from sea-level up to 1800 m altitude. In Ja­va, it is more abundant above 500 m. It growing gregariously and sometimes clog water courses. [2]

Botanical Description

E. fluctuans comes from the family of Compositae. It is a perennial, often gregarious, erect-pros­trate or free-floating, aromatic herb which can reach up to 30-100 cm long.

The stem is cylindrical, measures 0.5-1 cm in diametre, hol­low, hairy, sparsely branched and rooting at the nodes.

The leaves are arranged opposite, (sub)sessile, narrowly ob­long, measuring 2-10 cm x 0.5-2 cm, broadly truncate or subcordate at base, narrowly obtuse at apex, usual­ly with dentate-serrate margins and finely gland-dotted on both surfaces.

The inflorescence is a globular head, which is up to 1 cm in diametre, sessile, solitary, terminal or pseudo­axillary (due to the development of axillary branches), heterogamous and many-flowered. The involu­cre is 4 foliaceous, longitudinally-veined bracts, which is longer than the flowering heads and completely encloses them.

The female ray flowers are in many whorls. The petal is with long tube and 2-5-lobed limb, white or greenish-white. The ovary is covered by palea which is ciliate at top and with ultimately exserted style. The disk flowers are more or less numerous. They are bisexual or sometimes sterile. The petal is bell-shaped with 5­lobed rim. The ovary is with 2 style arms as in ray flower. The stamens are connate while anthers are ultimately exserted.

The fruit is one-seeded, oblongoid, measures 3 mm long, smooth, closely clasped by the thickened palea (acting as floater) and blackish. It is without pappus.

Cultivation

E. Fluctuans multiplies easily through dispersal of plant frag­ments, including fruits, by means of flowing water. [2]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

601

Figure 1: The line drawing of E. fluctuans [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1 Enydra fluctuans Lour. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Feb 11; cited 2015 Jun 10] Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/gcc-134747
  2. Enydra fluctuans Loureiro In: Siemonsma JS, Piluek K, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 8. Vegetables. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc Scientific Publishers; 1993.
  3. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research. Compendium of medicinal plants used in Malaysia. Volume 1. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR; 2002. p. 316.
  4. Quattrocchi UFLS. CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume III E-I. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press LLC; 2012. p. 70.