Garcinia mangostana L.

Last updated: 15 June 2015

Scientific Name

Garcinia mangostana L.

Synonyms

Mangostana garcinia Gaertner [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Manggis[2]
English Mangosteen [1], mangostan, purple mangosteen [3]
China Dao nian zi, shan zu [3]
Indonesia Manggis [2]
Thailand Mangkhut [2]
Laos Mangkhud [2]
Philippines Manggustan, manggis [2]
Cambodia Mongkhut [2]
Vietnam Cay mang cut [2]
France Mangoustan [2], mangoestan, mangoestanier, mangoustanier [3]
Spain Mangoestan [3]

Geographical Distributions

Garcinia mangostana is only known as a cultivated species, although there have been occasional reports of wild specimens in Malaysia. It closely resembles G. hombroniana Pierre and G. malaccensis T. Anderson, which are indigenous in Malaysia (the former is also indigenous in the Nicobar Islands). G. mangostana may be an allotetraploid hybrid of these two species; if so, it originated in Peninsular Malaysia. Cultivation has long been limited to Southeast Asia, ranging from Indonesia eastwards to New Guinea and Mindanao (the Philippines) and north via Peninsular Malaysia into the southern parts of Thailand, Burma and Vietnam, and to Cambodia. Only during the last two centuries has the crop spread to other tropical areas, including Sri Lanka, South India, Central America, Brazil and Queensland, where orchards of G. mangostana now cover small areas. [2]

Botanical Description

G. mangostana is a member of the family Guttiferae. It is a dioecious tree, up to 6-25 m tall, with a straight trunk, and symmetrically branched that forms a regular pyramidal crown, in conformity with the architectural model of Attims. All parts of the plant exude yellow latex when damaged. [2]

The leaves are arranged opposite, with short petioles clasping the shoots so that the apical pair conceals the terminal bud. The blades are oblong or elliptical, measuring 15-25 cm x 7-13 cm, thickly leathery, entire, cuspidate at the apex, hairless and olive-green above, yellow-green beneath with pale green colour at central nerve, prominent on both sides and with many evenly spaced prominent side nerves. [2]

The flowers are solitary or paired at apices of branchlets, with short and thick pedicels about 5.5 cm in diametre. The 4 sepals are arranged in 2 pairs. There are 4 petals, which are thick and fleshy and yellow-green with reddish edges. There are usually many staminodes which are 1-2-seriate that measure about 0.5 cm long. The ovary is sessile, nearly globular, 4-8-celled with prominent sessile and with 4-8-lobed stigma. [2]

The fruit is a spherical and smooth berry, measures 4-7 cm across, turning dark purple when ripens, with persistent sepals and still crowned by the stigma lobes. The pericarp is about 0.9 cm thick and purple. None to 3 of the cells contain a fully developed seed and enveloped by a white seed coat. [2]

Cultivation

No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

No documentation.

Preclinical Data

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

652

Figure 1: The line drawing of G. mangostana [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver 1.1. Garcinia mangostana L. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 April 18; cited 2015 June 3]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2816978
  2. Garcinia mangostana L. In: Verheij EWM, Coronel RE, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 2: Edible fruits and nuts. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc Scientific Publisher; 1991.
  3. Jules J, Robert EP. The Encyclopedia of Fruits and Nuts. United Kingdom, Cabi Publishing; 2008. p. 263.