Garcinia morella (Gaertn.) Desr.s

Last updated: 15 June 2015

Scientific Name

Garcinia morella (Gaertn.) Desr.s

Synonyms

Garcinia gutta Wight, Garcinia lateriflora Blume, Cambogia gutta L., Garcinia cambogioides (Murray) Royle, Hebradendron cambogioides Graha. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Kandis (Peninsular) [2]
English Indian gamboge tree [2], gamboge [3]
China Hai teng, teng huamg, tung huang [4]
India Amritadruma, arandal, chigiri, devana huli, jarigepuli, kankushta, makkicceti, pasupunarve, revalchinni, tamala, solaippuli, valakkana, valogam [4]
Philippines Maladambo (Tagalog); ugau (Bikol); kandis (Manobo) [2]
Tibet Rtsad sman khrol bu, rtsan sman khrol bu, rtsi da sman khrol bu [4]

Geographical Distributions

Garcinia morella is distributed from Sri Lanka and India throughout Northern Southeast Asia. The plant occurs in dry and humid forests. In dry zones, the trees are often stunted and the leaves less fleshy. [2]

Botanical Description

G. morella is a member of the family Guttiferae. It is a tree that can reach up to 20 m tall. Its trunk diametre is 50 cm but usually much smaller and smooth in all parts. The inner bark measures up to 1 cm thick, white to pale yellow, contains plenty of brilliant yellow and with sticky latex. [2]

The leaves are arranged opposite, coriaceous and entire. The petiole measures up to 2 cm long and conspicuous foveola with prominent margins. The blade is obovate to oblance-shaped, measuring 9-24 cm x 5-10 cm, tapered at the base and usually obscurely acuminate at the apex. The lower surface is with 7-8 very parallel prominent pairs and slender lateral veins measure 8-14 mm long. [2]

The flowers are subsessile, axillary and solitary (female) or 2-3 together (male). There are 4 sepals measure 5 mm long. There are 4 white to pink petals which are elliptical, measure 5-8 mm long and fleshy. The stamens in male flowers are in a monadelphous central column with free red anthers while the female flowers are with a sessile peltate stigma. The base of ovary is surrounded by about 15 free staminodes. [2]

The fruit is a spherical berry and measuring up to 3.5 cm in diametre. At the base is surrounded by the persistent sepals while at the apex is crowned by the flat tuberculate stigma, which is smooth and yellowish. The exocarp is thin, pulp edible fruit, acid-sweet and contains 2-3 seeds. The seed is kidney-shaped and laterally compressed. [2]

Cultivation

G. morella trees can be tapped when they are 10 years old by making a spiral incision and collecting the latex in small bamboo containers. [2]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

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Figure 1: The line drawing of G. morella [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver 1.1.Garcinia morella (Gaertn.) Desr. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mac 23; 2012 April 18; cited 2015 June 2]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2817012
  2. Garcinia morella (Gaertn.) Desr In: Van der Vossen HAM, Umali BE, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 14: Vegetable oils and fats. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers; 2001.
  3. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research. Compendium of medicinal plants used in Malaysia. Volume 1. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR; 2002. p. 366.
  4. Quattrocchi U. CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume III E-L. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2012. p. 298.