Geophila repens (L.) I.M.Johnst.

Last updated: 02 Jun 2015

Scientific Name

Geophila repens (L.) I.M.Johnst.

Synonyms

Geophila reniformis D. Don, Geophila herbacea (Jacq.) Standl., Carinta herbacea (Jacq.) W.Wight, Carinta repens (L.) L.B.Sm. & Downs, Carinta uniflora (Hiern) G.Taylor, Cephaelis diversifolia Blume, Cephaelis herbacea (Jacq.) Kurz, Cephaelis reniformis Kunth, Cephaelis reniformis Kunth, Cephaelis herbacea (Jacq.) Kurz [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Pegaga ular, pegaga tikus, pantat berok (Peninsular) [2], pegaga terkukur, pantat berok [3]
English Snake’s pennywort [3]
Thailand Mali din (Trat); uttaphit nam (Peninsular) [2]
Tonga Tongo [4]

Geographical Distributions

Geophila repens occurs throughout the tropics of Africa, Madagascar, South and Central America, Asia and Micronesia. It is found in the whole of South-East Asia. [2]

G. repens occurs in lowland forest, in not too dry localities, usually below 1000 m, but sometimes up to 1600 m altitude (e.g. in Java). [2]

Botanical Description

G repens is a member of the family Rubiaceae. This is a small creeping perennial herb, with papillose stems, which is up to 50 cm long, and profusely rooting. [2]

The leaves are arranged opposite, cordate-orbicular or cordate-reniform with a size of 2-4.5 cm x 1.5-4.5 cm, usually hairless, 7-9-veined and markedly pale below. The petiole is 1-9 cm long and densely papillose. The stipules are interpetiolar and transversely elliptical. [2]

The inflorescence is a terminal few-flowered umbel (flowers often solitary). Peduncle is up to 4 cm long while papillose is hairy. Flowers are bisexual, (4-)5(-7)-merous.  Sepal is deeply divided while the lobes are 3-4 mm long. Petal is tubular-infundibuliform, with 8-11 mm long tube while the lobes are 5-8 mm long, white and soon fall off. The stamens are inserted in petal tube while the filaments are minute. The ovary is inferior, 2-celled, crowned by a thick disk and 2-branched style. [2]

The fruit is spherical or broadly ellipsoid drupe about 8 mm in diameter. It is red but sometimes orange when ripe. There are 2 nutlets, which are plano-convex. [2]

Cultivation

No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

No documentation.

Preclinical Data

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Dosage

No documentation.

Line drawing

657

Figure 1: The line drawing of G. repens [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver 1.1. Geophila repens (L.) I.M.Johnst. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mac 23; cited 2015 June 2]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-89668
  2. Geophila repens (L.) I.M.Johnst. In: Lemmens RHMJ, Bunyapraphatsara N, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(3): Medicinal and poisonous plants 3. Leiden, Netherlands, Backhuys Publishers; 2003.
  3. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research. Compendium of medicinal plants used in Malaysia. Volume 1. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR; 2002. p. 370.
  4. Quattrocchi U. CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume III E-L. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2012. p. 318.