Gmelina elliptica Sm.

Last updated: 12 June 2015

Scientific Name

Gmelina elliptica Sm.


Gmelina villosa Roxb., Gmelina asiatica L. var. villosa (Roxb.) [2].

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Bulangan; belongeh; pukang matahari (Peninsular) [2]; bulang, pekan mata hari [3], bulang hutan, bulang gajah, bulang kecil, [4]
Indonesia Wareng (Javanese, Sundanese); bulangan (Madurese, Malay); pongranga (Buginese) [2]; bebulangaan, [3]
Thailand Khaang maeo (Central, Peninsular); kra bia luenag (Eastern); nom maeo (South-western, Peninsular) [2]
Philippines Talungud (Sulu); bohol (Cebu Bisaya); kalun-gun (Panay Bisaya) [2]
Vietnam Tun[us] l[as] b[aaf]u d[uj]c [2]

Geographical Distributions

Gmelina elliptica is found in Thailand, Indo-China, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines. [2]

G. elliptica is common in open secondary vegetation especially near the coast and in Java is from sea-level up to 500 m altitude. [2]

Botanical Description

G. elliptica is an evergreen shrub or small tree measuring up to 10 m tall, with spines and the light grey bark becomes fissured. The twigs are hairless and densely covered with short soft hair when young. [2]

The leaves are ovate or elliptical, entire, sometimes 3-lobed, measure 3-9 cm x 2-5.5 cm; its base is wedge-shaped while its apex is acute, hairless above, densely covered with short soft hairs and pale bluish-green below with minute green glands at base. [2]

The raceme is terminal, measuring up to 10 cm long with rather large bracts and sepals measure about 5 mm long, usually 4-lobed, with large glands. The 2-4 cm long petal is yellow. The upper lip is entire while the middle lobe of the 3-lobed lower lip is larger than other lobes, and densely covered with short soft hairs. [2]

The drupe is yellow, spherical and measures about 2 cm long. [2]


No documentation

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation


No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing


Figure 1: The line drawing of G. elliptica. [2]


  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Gmelina elliptica Sm. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2013 Mar 23; cited 2015 June 9]. Available from:
  2. Chung RCK. Gmelina elliptica J.E. Smith. In: van Valkenburg JLCH, Bunyapraphatsara N, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(2): Medicinal and poisonous plants 2. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher, 2001; p. 280-281.
  3. Quattrocchi U.  CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume III E-L. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2012. p. 359.
  4. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research. Compendium of medicinal plants used in Malaysia. Volume 1. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR; 2002. p. 378.