Gonystylus bancanus (Miq.) Kurz

ast updated: 12 June 2015

Scientific Name

Gonystylus bancanus (Miq.) Kurz


Gonystylus hackenbergii Diels, Aquilaria bancana Miq. [unresolved] [1]

Vernacular Name


Ramin melawis, melawis, ramin telur (Peninsular); garu buaja (Sarawak) [2]


Ramin (General); gaharu buaya (Sumatra, Kalimantan); merang (Kalimantan) [2]


Ramin [2]

Geographical Distributions

Gonystylus bancanus is found in South-Western Peninsular Malaysia, South-Eastern Sumatra, Bangka and Borneo. [2]

It occurs gregariously in lowland freshwater swamp or peat-swamp forests outside the influence of tidal waters but often in broad belts along the coast. It takes place up to 100 m altitude and occasionally found in pure stands (e.g. Sarawak). The density of the wood is (460-)540-750(-840) kg/m3 at 15% of moisture content. [2]

Botanical Description

G. bancanus falls under the family of Thymelaeaceae. It is a medium-sized to fairly large tree that can reach up to 40(-45) m tall. [2]

The bole is cylindrical and measuring up to 120 cm in diametre but usually less. It sometimes slightly fluted at the base and with many knee-roots (pneumatophores). The bark surface is often cracked and fissured, greyish to red-brown while the inner bark is fibrous, orange-brown to red-brown and with pale cream or white sapwood. [2]

The leaves are elliptical, short oblong-oblanceolate or obovate, measuring (4-)5-8(-14.5) cm x (2-)3-5(-7) cm, often conduplicate, broadly wedge-shaped to rounded at the base, suddenly narrowed into an acuminate-cuspidate at the apex and quite hairless. The petiole is 8-18 mm long. [2]

The inflorescence measures up to 9 cm long and with minutely adpressed ochraceo-puberulous. There are 13-20 petals which are narrowly lance-shaped and smooth. [2]

The fruit is nearly spherical and measuring up to 4 cm in diametre. [2]


No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

No documentation.

Preclinical Data

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.


No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing


Figure 1: The line drawing of G. bancanus [2]


  1. The Plant List. Ver 1.1. Gonystylus bancanus (Miq.) Kurz [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 26; cited 2015 Jun 12] Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2830396
  2. Gonystylus bancanus (Miq.) Kurz In: Soerianegara I, Lemmens RHMJ, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5(1): Timber trees; Major commercial timbers. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc Scientific Publishers; 1993.