Harrisonia perforata (Blanco) Merr.

Last updated: 15 June 2015

Scientific Name

Harrisonia perforata (Blanco) Merr.


Harrisonia paucijuga Olivo, Harrisonia bennettiiBenn., Anisifolium pubescens (Wall.) Kuntze, Feroniella puberula Yu.Tanaka, Feroniella pubescens (Wall. ex Hook.f.) Yu.Tanaka, Feroniella pubescens (Wall. ex Hook.f.) Tanaka, Paliurus dubius Blanco, Harrisonia citrinaecarpa Elmer, Lasiolepis multijuga Benn., Limonia pubescens Wall. ex Hook.f., Paliurus perforatus Blanco [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Kait-kait (Murut, Sabah) [2]
China Niu jin guo [3]
Indonesia Sesepang (Lam-pung); garut (Sundanese); ri kengkeng (Javanese) [2]
Thailand Khonthaa (Central); naam chee (Northern) [2]
Laos Dok kin ta [2]
Philippines Asimau, mamikil (Tagalog); muntani (Bisaya) [2], baguit, bauit, bokit, sap-sapang [3]
Vietnam S[aa]n, da da, h[ar]i s[ow]n [2]

Geographical Distributions

Harrisonia perforata is found in the drier parts from Burma (Myanmar) eastward through Thailand to Indo-China and the Philippines, southward to Peninsular Malaysia (Perlis), South Sumatra, Borneo (Sabah), Sulawesi, Java and the Lesser Sunda Islands. [2]

Botanical Description

H. perforata is a member of the family Simaroubaceae. It is a climbing to erect prickly shrub up to 4(-6) m tall.   The leaves pinnate with unpaired terminal leaflet up to 20 cm long, with 1-15 pairs of leaflets supported by a 5-30 mm long stalk. The stipulate thorns are slightly curved backward or downward, increasing in size to 7 mm. Its leaflets are rhomboid to ovate-lance-shaped, 10-20 mm x 5-15 mm, nearly entire to lobed with narrowly winged rachis. [2]

The flowers are with a pedicel, small sepal, triangular lobes, petals are lance-shaped, 6-9 mm x 2-4 mm which are red outside and pale red to white inside. The stamens are (8-)10 with anthers 1.5-4.5 mm long, filaments are 7-10 mm long, at the base with an elongated flattened strap-shaped structure which is densely woolly at the margin, disk is cup-shaped, ovary is slightly lobed, styles 5-8 mm long and pubescent. [2]

The fruit is a berry, 4-9 mm x 11-15 mm, exocarp of leathery texture, at least 1 mm thick, endocarp hard, without suture [2]


H. perforata prefers dry, open localities such as light secondary forest, thickets and forest edges, often on limestone rocks; less common in monsoon forest. It prefers distinctly seasonal conditions from sea-level up to 700(-900) m altitude. [2]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation


No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing


Figure 1: The line drawing of H. perforata [2]


  1. The Plant List. Ver 1.1. Harrisonia perforata (Blanco) Merr. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mac 23; cited 2015 June 12]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2839900
  2. Harrisonia perforata (Blanco) Merr In: Siemonsma J.S, Pilvek K. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No.12 (2). Paris, France, Unesco Publisher; 1998.
  3. Quattrocchi U.  CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume III E-L. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2012. p. 421