Heritiera littoralis Aiton

Last updated: 12 June 2015

Scientific Name

Heritiera littoralis Aiton


Amygdalus litoralis (Dryand.) Kuntze, Balanopteris tothila Gaertn. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Dungun (General); dungut laut (Sabah) [2]; bengkulang, mengkulang [3], dungun bukit, dungun laut, buah pelir kambing, bayur laut, atun laut [4]
English Looking-glass tree [2]
Brunei Itik-itikan [2]
Indonesia Dungon (General); dungun kecil (Kalimantan) [2]
Thailand Khai khwai (Krabi); duhun (Trang); ngonkai-thale (Central, Surat Thani) [2]
Myanmar Pinle-kanazo [2]
Philippines Dungon-late (Pilipino) [2]
Cambodia Khleay [2]
Vietnam C[aa]y cui, cui bien [2]

Geographical Distributions

Heritiera littoralis is found in Eastern Africa, Southern Asia, from India to Southern China, and to tropical Australia, Hawaii and New Caledonia and throughout Malesia. The plant grows in the inland zone of mangrove swamps, and it is common in many places. [2]

Botanical Description

H. littoralis is a member of the family Sterculiaceae. It is a medium-sized evergreen tree that can reach up to 25 m tall but usually much less, usually with twisted and stunted bole measuring up to 40(-60) cm in diametre. The buttresses are thin, wavy and extending far out. [2]

The leaves are simple, silvery scaly beneath, with petioles 0.5-1(-2) cm long and stout. The panicles are lax and measuring up to 18 cm long. [2]

The ellipsoid fruit is with a rudder-like ridge, hairless and glossy. [2]


H. littoralis wood often smells like leather. The density of the wood is 830-1040 kg/m3 at 15% moisture content. [2]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

No documentation.

Preclinical Data

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.


No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing


Figure 1: The line drawing of H. littoris [2]


  1. Heritiera littoralis Aiton In: Soerianegara I, Lemmens RHMJ, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5(1): Timber trees: Major commercial timbers. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc Scientific Publishers, 1993. p. 230-238.
  2. The Plant List. Ver 1.1. Heritiera littoralis Aiton. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mac 26, 2012 Mac 23; cited 2015 June 12]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2846318
  3. Quattrocchi U. CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume III E-L. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2012. p. 455.
  4. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research. Compendium of medicinal plants used in Malaysia. Volume 2. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR; 2002. p. 11.