Glebionis coronaria (L.) Cass. ex Spach.

Last updated: 9 June 2015

Scientific Name

Glebionis coronaria (L.) Cass. ex Spach.

Synonyms

Buphthalmum oleraceum Lour., Chamaemelum coronarium (L.) E.H.L.Krause, Chrysanthemum coronarium L., Chrysanthemum coronatum Dum.Cours. [Illegitimate], Chrysanthemum merinoanum Pau, Chrysanthemum roxburghii Desf. ex Cass., Chrysanthemum senecioides Dunal ex DC., Chrysanthemum spatiosum (L.H.Bailey) L.H.Bailey, Chrysanthemum speciosum Brouss. ex Pers., Dendranthema coronarium (L.) M.R.Almeida Tzvelev, Glebionis roxburghii (Desf. ex Cass.) Tzvelev [Illegitimate], Matricaria coronaria (L.) Desr., Pinardia coronaria (L.) Less., Pinardia roxburghii (Desf. ex Cass.) Less., Pyrethrum indicum Roxb., Pyrethrum roxburghii Desf., Xanthophthalmum coronarium (L.) P.D.Sell, Xanthophthalmum coronarium (L.) trehane ex Cullen. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Garland chrysanthemum, crown daisy, tangho (from Chinese); kekwa [2]
English Garland chrysanthemum [3]
China Chop-suey greens [3]
Indonesia Tango, saruni walanda (West Java) [2]
Thailand Phaktang-o (Central); phakkhikhwai (Northern) [2]
Laos Tang 'ôô [2]
Philippines Tango (Tagalog) [2]
Vietnam c[ar]i c[us]c, c[us]c t[aaf]n [oo] [2]
France Chrysanthème des jardins [2]
United States of America Shungiku (from Japanese); chop suey green, Japanese green [2].

Geographical Distributions

Glebionis coronaria is native to the Mediterranean region and is distributed throughout Europe, northern Africa, and Asia. It has long been cultivated in Europe and Asia, but for different purposes: in the western world mainly as an ornamental, in Asia (China, Japan) mainly as a vegetable. In Southeast Asia, the vegetable types were probably introduced from China relatively recently, as the Chinese-derived name 'tangho' has remained strongly associated with the crop in most countries. [2]

Botanical Description

G. coronaria is a member of the Compositae family. It is an erect, densely leafy, branched, annual herb that can grow up to measure 20-60 cm tall in the vegetative stage and up to measure about 90 cm when flowering. [2]

The leaves are arranged alternate, semi-amplexicaul, oblong to obovate  in outline, with a size of measuring 3-13 cm x 1-4 cm, variably incised from entire to 2-pinnatisect (most usual form) with oblong, lance-shaped or linear in shape, incise-dentate segments or lobes. [2]

The inflorescence is a head and it is measure 3-6 cm in diametre. The measuring 2-5 cm long peduncle is ribbed. The involucral bracts are in 2-4 rows and with scarious margins. The ray flowers (marginal) are 12-15, only female, oblong ligule, measuring 1-1.5 cm x 5-8 mm, emarginate at the apex and yellow. The disk flowers (central) are numerous, bisexual, with 4-5 mm long tubular petals. It is yellow and 5-lobed at the top. [2]

The fruit is a glandular, more or less turbinate achene, measure 2-3 mm long and without pappus. In marginal flowers it is with 3 wings and 6-ribbed while in the central flowers it is with 1 wing and 10-ribbed. [2]

Cultivation

G. coronaria grows best in cool temperate climates, but it does well at higher elevations in the tropics. Some cultivars even tolerate light frost. Temperatures should not exceed 25°C, as the crop will produce few leaves and will flower early. [2]

G. coronaria seems to be photoperiod-insensitive, flowering readily at temperate and tropical latitudes. It grows relatively well at low light levels. It suffers from very wet conditions or heavy rainfall. Fertile, moisture-retentive soils are preferred, but it is not very demanding of soil type. [2]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

 

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Figure 1: The line drawing of G. coronaria. [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver1.1. Glebionis coronaria (L.) Cass. ex Spach[homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Feb 11; cited 2015 June 9]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/gcc-28875.
  2. Chrysanthemum coronarium L. In: Siemonsma JS, Piluek K, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 8. Vegetables. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc Scientific Publishers, 1993.
  3. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research. Compendium of medicinal plants used in Malaysia. Volume 1. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR; 2002. p. 166-167.