Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr.

Last updated: 29 Jul 2015

Scientific Name

Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr.


Acacia niopo Litv., Inga timoriana DC., Mimosa peregrina Blanco, Parkia calcarata Lecomte, Parkia grandis Hassk., Parkia roxburghii G.Don [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Kedaung (Sarawak); kupang (Sabah); petai kerayong (Peninsular) [2][3]; kedawang, kadaong, gedayong, gedayang, kerayong, beka, boli, tulor, bereksa [4]
China Qiu hua dou [3]
India Aoelgap,barri-phang, jongcha, jongta, kedawong, khorial, lonchak, maniouri urohi, Manipuri urohi,themuk-arong, unkam pinching,yongchak, zawngtah, zongto [3]
Indonesia Alai (Sumatra); kedawung (Javanese); peundeuy (Sundanese) [2]; rampah [3]
Thailand Kariang, riang (peninsular) [2][3]
Myanmar Mai-karien (Shan) [2][3]
Philippines Kupang (Pilipino); amarang (Palawan) [2][3].

Geographical Distributions

Parkia timoriana is distributed throughout India, Bangladesh, Burma (Myanmar), Thailand and the Malesian region (except Papua New Guinea). [2]

P. timoriana is found in lowland rain forest, mixed deciduous and dry evergreen forests, often along streams or the upper part of slopes. It prefers fertile soils with a pH between 5-7, at 0-600(-1300) m altitude. [2]

Botanical Description

P. timoriana is a member of the Leguminosae family. The tree is measure up to 50 m tall. [2]

The leaves are arranged alternately. The primary rachis is a stalk of 18-42 cm long and the pinnate leaf comes with 14-31 pairs of leaflet. The secondary rachis is 8.7-11.5 cm long with 52-72 pairs of leaflet of the pinnate leaf. The leaf form is somewhat sigmoid, 6-10.5 mm x 1-2 mm. The leaflet base eared on proximal side, while its apex is acute. [2]

The inflorescence has 5-7 stalks per compound, each is 8.5-33 cm long with 5.5-6.7 cm long head. The inflorescence became big and rounded at the time the flowers expand. The apical part is 3-4.5 cm in diametre. It has bisexual flowers with sepal up to 10.5 mm long and petal up to 11 mm long. The lobes are up to 2 mm while its strap-shaped pod is up to 50 cm long (including carpel stalk) and 4-5.5 cm broad. Its valves are woody but rarely twisted and have 6-15.5 cm long carpel stalks. [2]

The pod has12-19 seeds each and lying horizontally across the width of the pod. [2]


No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

No documentation.

Preclinical Data

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing




Figure 1: The line drawing of P. timoriana [2]


  1. The Plant List. Ver 1.1. Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2010 Jul 14; cited 2015 Jul 28]. Available from:
  2. Yusuf UK, Zuhud EAM. Parkia sumatrana Miq. In: van Valkenburg JLCH, Bunyapraphatsara N, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(2): Medicinal and poisonous plants 2. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher; 2001. p. 407-408.
  3. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume IV M-Q. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2012. p. 430-431.
  4. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research. Compendium of medicinal plants used in Malaysia. Volume 2. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR; 2002. p. 199.