Pavetta indica L.

Last updated: 03 August 2015

Scientific Name

Pavetta indica L.                                                                                              


Ixora indica (L.) Baill., Ixora nunypapata Roxb. ex Wight & Arn., Ixora paniculata Lam., Ixora pavetta Roxb. [Illegitimate], Ixora roxburghii Kuntze, Ixora velutina Wall. [Invalid], Pavetta alba Vahl, Pavetta brunonis Wight [Illegitimate], Pavetta cerniflora Zipp. ex Span., Pavetta obtusa Pers., Pavetta thomsonii Bremek. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Jarum-jarum, nyarum-nyarum, gading-gading [2], angsoka, bunga jarum, bunga jenjarum, gading galoh, gading hutan, jarum-jarum padang, jarum paya, jarum puteh, jenjarum, menjarum, nyarong, nyarum, nyarum nyarum, pechah periok puteh, senyarum, serau lipis, serungkok [3]
English White pavetta, bride’s bush [2][3]
India Adavarai, adayaara, adayala, angari, chitamitla, dieng longtham, kakra, kukurachura, lakkapapidi, makatosanikki, nattalaicetti, paapata, pavuttayvayr, tapra, thainurai, tiriakphala, tovalika, tumakani, vellaippavattai, verunai, yedle [3]
Indonesia Soka (Sundanese) [2][3]
Thailand Khem paa (Central; Northern) [2][3]
Laos Kho som kang, kho som kao [2][3]
Philippines Gusokan (Cebu Bisaya); pangapatolen (Iloko); kotbu (Igorot); galauan, gesges, malakape, pangapatoten, sangkilan, tamayan [3]
Vietnam Thanh t[as]o r[uwf]ng,d[oj]t s[af]nh, c[awr]ng g[af] [2][3]
France Bois de pintade [2].

Geographical Distributions

Pavetta indica is widely distributed from the Andaman Islands, India and the North-Western Himalayas to Southern China and southwards throughout Malesia to Northern Australia. [2]

P. indica is common in primary and secondary forests, where it often forms as a single stem. It also occurs in open localities, where branched types are more common, from sea-level up to 1500 m altitude. [2]

Botanical Description

P. indica is a member of the Rubiaceae family. It is a shrub or small tree, 3-5 m tall, with opposite branches. The young twigs are either hairless, or covered with down, fine or pubescent hairs. [2]

The leaves are simple, arranged opposite, either egg-shaped or oblong, 6-13 cm x 2-5 cm supported by 1-2 cm long stalk, with acute or wedge-shaped base while the apex is obtuse to acute. The leaf surface can either be smooth or hairy underneath. The stipules are located between the stalk, connate at the base and distinctly cuspidate. [2]

The inflorescence is a terminal, compact, erect corymb or corymbose panicle, and measures up to 6 cm long. Their peduncle is persistent, short with large bracts, membranaceous and cupule-shaped. The fragrant flowers are bisexual, 4-merous, and white in colour. The pollen is shed before the stigma is ready to receive it. The pedicel is short with bell-shaped sepal. Its teeth-tiny petals are rather thick cylindrical tube, 8-12 mm long. The lobes are obtuse, up to 4 mm long, contorted as a bud while the stamens are inserted at its petal. The stamens have short filaments and the arrowhead-shaped and conspicuously twisted anthers attached at the back. The anther’s disk is annular. The ovary is inferior, consists of 2-locular with 1 ovule per cell, with slender, long-exserted style. The stigma has 2 short lobes. [2]

The fruit is a spherical drupe, 5-6 mm in diametre, with 1-2 little nuts that turned black when ripe. The thin-walled, plano-convex 1-seeded little nut has a wide and circular excavation. [2]

The seedling is epigeal germination and its cotyledons are green and leafy. [2]


No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

No documentation.

Preclinical Data

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing


Figure 1: The line drawing of P. indica [2]


  1. The Plant List. Ver 1.1. Pavetta indica L.[homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2015 Jul 28]. Available from:
  2. Schmelzer GH. Pavetta indica L. In: van Valkenburg JLCH, Bunyapraphatsara N, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(2): Medicinal and poisonous plants 2. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher; 2001. p. 408-410.
  3. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume IV M-Q. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2012. p. 450-451.