Picrasma javanica Blume

Last updated: 29 Jul 2015

Scientific Name

Picrasma javanica Blume

Synonyms

Picrasma nepalensis A. W. Bennett, Picrasma philippinensis Elmer. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Balimbing (Sabah); kayu pahit (Sarawak) [1]
India Bonpashala, chap-alau, nim-teeta, nimteeta, sheng-lauksau, seheng-lokso [2]
Indonesia Tuba ulet (Palembang, Sumatra); pati laler (Javanese) [1]; ki pahit, ki brahma (Sundanese) [1][3]
Thailand Kom khom (Northern); dam, yee nam bai lek (Peninsular) [1], di ngu ton [3]
Vietnam Kh[oor] di[eej]p [1]

Geographical Distributions

Picrasma javanica occurs from North-Eastern India throughout Southeast Asia to the Solomon Islands. It can be found scattered in rain forest from sea-level up to 1500 m altitude. [1]

Botanical Description

P. javanica is a member of the Simaroubaceae family. It is a monoecious or dioecious tree that can reach up to 25 m tall. The bole is fluted, up to 35 cm in diametre. [1]

The leaves are arranged spirally and imparipinnate. The petiole is 2-6 cm long while stipules are early caducous and foliaceous. The leaflets are opposite or subopposite with a size of 4-20 cm x 1-10 cm, wedge-shaped base, blunt-acuminate apex and entire. [1]

The inflorescence is axillary, compound-cymose, unisexual that up to 20 cm long, bracteolate and long-peduncled. The flowers are unisexual with 4-merous, white to yellow or green. The female ones are usually twice as large as the male. Sepals are triangular to ovate, about 1 mm. The petals are ovate-oblong or oblong. The size of male flowers is 2-5 mm x 1-2 mm while in female flowers is 3-7 mm x 3-5 mm. The size is increasing with the age. The stamens are up to 5 mm long in male flowers, 4-lobed disk and hairy. The ovaries are superior and up to 4 and free with styles are up to 4 and united. [1]

The fruit is consisting of 1-4, hardly fleshy drupelets. The drupe is ovoid to depressed-spherical with a size of 9-10 mm x 7-12 mm, green to red or blue, thin exocarp, fleshy, wrinkled when dry and hard endocarp. [1]

Cultivation

No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

No documentation.

Preclinical Data

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

906

Figure 1: The line drawing of P. javanica. [1]

References

  1. Picrasma javanica Blume. In: Lemmens RHMJ, Bunyapraphatsara N, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 12(3): Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 3. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publication; 2003.
  2. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume IV M-Q. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2012. p. 565.
  3. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research. Compendium of medicinal plants used in Malaysia. Volume 2. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR; 2002. p. 221.