Picria fel-terrae Lour.

Last updated: 29 Jul 2015

Scientific Name

Picria fel-terrae Lour.  

Synonyms

Curanga amara Juss., Curanga fel-terrae (Lour.) Merr., Curanga melissifolia A.Juss., Curanga torenioides Steud., Gratiola amara (Juss.) Roxb. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Hempedu tanah, gelumak susu, rumput kerak nasi [2], beremi, glumak susu, lempedu tanah [3]
English Curanja [4]
China Ku xuan shen, kun ta tjao [3]
India Longritong [3]
Indonesia Tamah raheut (Sundanese); daun kukurang (Moluccas); papaita (Ternate) [2]
Laos Kông saden, (do:k) pu:n [2][4]
Philippines Sagai-uak (Sulu) [2][4]
Vietnam m[aaj]t d[aas]t, thanh [2][4].

Geographical Distributions

Picria fel-terrae is distributed in Asia from the eastern Himalayas to India, Burma (Myanmar), southern China, Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Java, Sulawesi, Moluccas and the Philippines. [2]

P. fel-terrae is a rare to rather common herb. It occurs on forest slopes, or shady forest edges, and from sea-level up to 900 m altitude. [2]

Botanical Description

P. fel-terrae is a member of the Scrophulariaceae family. It is an annual herb that grows up to 40 cm tall with stems laxly branched, erect or prostrate, quadrangular, has rooting at the nodes and densely minutely pubescent. [2]

The leaves are simple and arranged oppositely. The leaf is egg-shaped size 2-5 cm x 1.5-3 cm, the base is wedge-shaped to round while the apex is sub-acute. The leaf margins are blunt teeth and covered with short soft hair with 2-15 mm long stalk. [2]

The inflorescence is terminal or pseudo-axillary raceme, 2-6 cm long with 2-16 flowers. The bracts are small and lance-shaped with 4-7 mm long pedicel. The sepal is flat, with 4 sepals in 2 series. The upper outer sepal is heart-shaped, sized at 7-9 mm x 6-8 mm while the lower outer one is slightly bi-lobed sized at 5-6 mm x 4-5 mm long. The flower increases in size with age, consisting of 2 slender lateral inner ones at the size of 2-3 mm long. All are minutely pubescent. The petal is tubular and two-lipped. The tube is 8 mm long and smooth on the outside. The other 2 lateral ridges have glandular hairs inside, consisting of 2-3 mm long reddish-brown upper lip. Meanwhile the lower lip is 2.5-3.5 mm long, white, with 3 lobes, a tube and 2 stamens each at 1 mm long at the posterior. The 2 yellow abortive stamens with imperfect anther are anterior while the deltoid-ovoid ovary is superior and hairless. The style is slender while its stigma is slightly bi-lobed. [2]

The fruit is a reverse egg-shaped capsule at a size of 4 mm x 3 mm and bivalved with several seeds. [2]

The spherical seed is about 0.6 mm in diametre and have 8 oblong hollows. [2]

Cultivation

No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

No documentation.

Preclinical Data

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

907

Figure 1: The line drawing of P. fel-terrae. [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver 1.1. Picria fel-terrae Lour. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 26; cited 2015 Jul 28]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2549224
  2. Schmelzer GH, Horsten SFAJ. Picria fel-terrae Lour. In: van Valkenburg JLCH, Bunyapraphatsara N, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(2): Medicinal and poisonous plants 2. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher, 2001; p. 426-428.
  3. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume IV M-Q. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2012. p. 565-566.
  4. Philippine Medicinal Plants. Sagai-uak. Curanga fel-terrae (Lour.) Merr. [homepage on the Internet]. [updated 2014 Apr; cited 2015 Aug 18] Available from: http://www.stuartxchange.com/Sagai-uak.html