Psidium guajava L.

Last updated: 3 August 2015

Scientific Name

Psidium guajava L.

Synonyms

Guajava pumila (Vahl) Kuntze, Guajava pyrifera (L.) Kuntze, Myrtus guajava (L.) Kuntze, Psidium angustifolium Lam., Psidium aromaticum Blanco [Illegitimate], Psidium cujavillus Burm.f., Psidium cujavus L., Psidium fragrans Macfad., Psidium igatemyense Barb.Rodr., Psidium intermedium Zipp. ex Blume, Psidium pomiferum L., Psidium prostratum O.Berg, Psidium pumilum Vahl, Psidium pyriferum L., Psidium sapidissimum Jacq., Psidium vulgare Rich., Syzygium ellipticum K.Schum. & Lauterb. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Jambu biji, jambu kampuchia, jambu berase (North) [2]; jambu batu, jambu burung, jambu padang, jambu bereksa, jambu buyawas, jambu biyawas, jambu pelawas, jambu melukut, jambu portugal [3]
English Guava [2], apple guava, common guava, lemon guava [3]
Indonesia Jambu biji (Malay); jambu klutuk (Javanese) [2]; bayawas, jambu krutuk, petokal, tokal (Javanese) [3]
Thailand Farang (Central); ma-kuai, ma-man (North) [2]; mapun, yamu [3]
Laos Si da [2]
Myanmar Malakapen [2]
Cambodia Trapaek sruk [2]
Vietnam Oi [2]
Brunei Jambu batu (Malay); biyabas [2]
France Goyavier [2].

Geographical Distributions

Psidium guajava is indigenous to the American tropics. In the opinion of De Candolle, it is originated from the area between Mexico and Peru. The Spaniards took it across the Pacific to the Philippines and the Portuguese introduced it from the West into India. At present, it is well distributed and naturalised throughout the tropics and subtropics. [2]

Botanical Description

P. guajava is comes from the family Myrtaceae. It is a shallow-rooted shrub or small tree, up to 10 m tall, branching from the base and often produces suckers. The bark is smooth, green to red-brown and peels off in thin flakes. The young twigs are 4-angled, ridged and hairy. [2]

The leaves are arranged opposite and glandular. The petiole is 3-10 mm long. The blade is elliptical to oblong, measuring 5-15 cm x 3-7 cm, hairless above, finely hairy beneath and with veins prominent below. [2]

The flowers are solitary or in 2- to 3-flowered cymes, axillary and about 3 cm in diameter. There are 4-6 sepal lobes which are 1-1.5 cm long, irregular and persistent. There are 4-5 petals which are white and 1-2 cm long. The stamens are numerous and 1-2 cm long. The ovary is 4- to 5-locular with 1.5-2 cm long style and headed stigma. [2]

The fruit is a berry, which is spherical, ovoid or pear-shaped, 4-12 cm long and surmounted by the sepal lobes. The exocarp is green to yellow. The mesocarp is fleshy, white, yellow, pink or red, with stone cells, sour to sweet and aromatic. [2]

The seeds 3-5 mm long are usually numerous, embedded in pulp, yellowish, bony and kidney-shaped. [2]

Cultivation

P. guajava is a hardy tree that adapts to a wide range of growing conditions. In the tropics, the tree is found from sea-level to an altitude of about 1500 m. It can withstand temperatures from 15-45 °C; the highest yields are recorded at mean temperatures of 23-28°C. In the subtropics, quiescent trees withstand light frosts and mean temperatures above 16°C for 3.5-6 months (depending on the cultivar) suffice for flowering and fruiting. P. guajava is more drought-resistant than most tropical fruit crops. For maximum production in the tropics, however, it requires 1000-2000 mm of rain, evenly distributed over the year. If fruit ripens during a very wet period, it loses flavor and may split. [2]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

943

Figure 1: The line drawing of P. guajava [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver 1.1. Psidium guajava L. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013. [updated on 2012 Mar 23; cited on 2015 Jul 31]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-166741
  2. Soetopo L. Psidium guajava L. In: Verheij EWM, Coronel RE, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 2: Edible fruits and nuts. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc Scientific Publisher, 1991; p. 266-270.
  3. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research.Compendium of medicinal plants used in Malaysia. Volume 2. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR; 2002. p. 262.