Salvia hispanica L.

Last updated: 17 August 2015

Scientific Name

Salvia hispanica L.

Synonyms

Kiosmina hispanica (L.) Raf., Salvia chia Colla, Salvia chia Sessé & Moc. [Illegitimate], Salvia hispanica var. chionocalyx Fernald, Salvia hispanica var. intonsa Fernald, Salvia neohispanica Briq. [Illegitimate], Salvia prysmatica Cav., Salvia schiedeana Stapf, Salvia tetragona Moench. [1]

Vernacular Name

English Chia [2], wild sage [3]
Indonesia Cuwing, salasi huma (Sundanese) [2]; tjuwing [3]
France Chia [2]
Mexico Chaa, gueeza chaa, queza chaa, guia belaga, quije pelage (Oxaca); chía, chíacomercial, chía del campo, chía del monte, romerillo, salvia; [3].

Geographical Distributions

Salvia his­panica originates from southern Mexico and northern Guatemala. Its earliest cultivation and utilization is by the Aztecs in Central America. It was introduced and naturalised in the West In­dies, Spain and West Java. It is grown commer­cially in central Mexico, Guatemala, United States (Southern California, South-Eastern Texas), North-Western Argentina and occasionally in West Java, Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. [2]

In its natural area, S. hispanica grows in moist or dry thickets, in open, often dry rocky slopes, sometimes on sandbars along streams and often as a weed, at altitudes 1150-2500 m. In West Java, it can be found in open areas, road sides, fal­low or weedy agricultural land and low brushwoods at altitudes of 900-1700 m. In north-western Ar­gentina, it is grown at elevations of 300-1350 m, with maximum temperature of about 30°C and minimum temperature of 12.5°C. Rainfall in this region varies between 100-1000 mm per year. This is a species of the semi-arid areas. [2]

Botanical Description

S. his­panica is comes from the family Labiatae. It is an erect or ascending herb that can grow up to 0.5-1 m tall or more. The stem and branches are quadrangular, villous and hispid. [2]

The leaves are arranged opposite and thin. The petiole is 1-6 cm long and slender. The blade is oblong-lance-shaped to ovate, measuring 3-8 cm x 1-4.5 cm, obtuse and abrupt­ly attenuates at base, with entire margin at the base and serrate or serrulate elsewhere, and acute or acuminate at apex. Both surfaces are pubescent. [2]

The inflorescence consists of verticillasters of 6-10 zygomorphic flowers. These are congested in a dense, terminal false spike measuring 5-25 cm x 1.5 cm. The internodes are 2-5 mm long. The bracts are ovate-acuminate, measure 6-8 mm long and persistent. The sepal is tubular but 2-lipped, slightly inflated below, measures 6-8 mm long, 8-11 mm in fruit and densely hairy. The upper lip is strongly keeled and sharply pointed while the lower lip is 2-toothed. The petal is tubular, 2-lipped, blue or pur­plish-blue. The lips are shortly exposed with tube 4.5-5.5 mm long. The upper lip is 3 mm long and rounded and sericeous outside while the lower lip is 3-lobed. It is 3.5-5 mm long. There are 4 sta­mens which are didynamous, hardly exposed, and with lower pair fertile and lower connective branch swollen. The disk is prominent. The ovary is superior with 2-branched style. The up­per branch is long and slender. It is 2.5 mm long and point­ed while the lower one is short and club-shaped. The main style articulates above the base. [2]

The fruit consists of 4 schizocarpous nutlets where each one is ellipsoid, 1.8 mm long and mottled with black and grey. [2]

Cultivation

No documentation

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

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Figure 1 : The line drawing of S. hispanica [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver 1.1. Salvia hispanica L. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013. [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2015 Aug 6]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-182829
  2. Salvia hispanica L. In: van der Vossen HAM, Umali BE, editors. Plant resources of South-East Asia No 14: Vegetables oils and fats. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publication: 2001.
  1. Quattrocchi U. CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume V R-Z. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2012. p. 137-138.