Scorodocarpus borneensis (Baill.) Becc.

Last updated: 8 August 2015

Scientific Name

Scorodocarpus borneensis (Baill.) Becc.

Synonyms

Ximenia borneensis Baill. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Bawang hutan (Sabah, Sarawak); sagan berauh, ungsunah (Sarawak) [2], kulim (Trade name); mai kulim [3]
English Bawang hutan [2]
Indonesia Kayu bawang (Sumatra, Kalimantan); kayu bawang utan (Kalimantan); selaru (Kalimantan) [2]
Brunei Bawang hutan [2]
Thailand krathiam ton, kuleng, kulim (peninsular) [2].

Geographical Distributions

Scorodocarpus is a monotypic genus occurring in peninsular Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo. The only species is Scorodocarpus borneensis (Baillon) Becc. [2]

S. borneensis occurs scattered but may be locally common or even gregarious in primary rain forest, up to 600(-900) m altitude. [2]

Botanical Description

S. borneensis is a member of the family Olacaceae. It is an evergreen, medium-sized to large tree that can reach up to measure 40(-60) m tall. All parts of this tree smell of garlic. [2]

The bole is columnar, branchless for up to measure 25 m, as well as up to measure about 80(-150) cm in diametre, often piped and occasionally with small buttresses. The bark surface is shallowly fissured and flaking into thin rectangles. It is grey-brown to dark red-brown in colour. The inner bark is fibrous, purplish-red and with orange flecks inwards. [2]

The leaves are arranged spirally, simple, entire and exstipulate. The petiole is swollen distally. [2]

The flowers are in an axillary, short raceme and with 4-5-merous. The sepal is cup-shaped and with wavy to toothed margin. The white petals are reflexed, and hairy inside. There are 8 or 10 stamens that inserted in pairs about halfway on the petal. The ovary is superior, imperfectly 3-4-locular with a single ovule in each cell while the stigma is minutely lobed. [2]

The fruit is a thinly fleshy, slightly globular, 1-seeded and with green drupe. The endocarp is woody with vertical strands. [2]

The seedling is with hypogeal germination. The cotyledons are not emergent while the hypocotyl is not developed. The epicotyl is with a few scale leaves that followed by normal and spirally arranged leaves. Sapling leaves are alternate-distichous on the branches but arranged spirally on the orthotropic leader. [2]

Cultivation

S. borneensis growth is slow and trees in a large sample in natural forest in Peninsular Malaysia showed an average annual diametre increment of measuring is 0.2-0.3 cm. In plantation trials in Peninsular Malaysia the largest trees of 30-33 years old measured 18-29 cm in diametre and measure about 18-21 m in height. In Peninsular Malaysia flowering is in January-July and fruiting more or less throughout the year while in Borneo fruiting is usually in June-September. [2]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

975

Figure 1: The line drawing of S. borneensis [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver 1.1. Scorodocarpus borneensis (Baill.) Becc. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013. [updated 2012 Apr 18; cited 2015 Aug 14]. Available from : http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/tro-100355053
  2. Scorodocarpus borneensis (Baill.) Becc. In: Sosef MSM, Hong LT, Prawirohatmodjo S, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5 (3): Timber trees: Lesser-known timbers. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher; 1998.
  3. Quattrocchi U. CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume V R-Z. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2012. p. 209.