Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L.

Last updated: 17 August 2015

Scientific Name

Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L.

Synonyms

Sonchus angustissimus Hook.f., Sonchus angustissimus H.Lindb. [Illegitimate], Sonchus asper P. Gaertn. & al. [Illegitimate], Sonchus asper "Hall ex G.Gaertn., B.Mey. & Scherb." [Illegitimate], Sonchus australis Hort. ex Trev., Sonchus australis Trevir., Sonchus ciliatus Lam., Sonchus fabrae Sennen, Sonchus glaber Gilib. [Invalid], Sonchus gracilis Phil., Sonchus gracilis Sennen, Sonchus lacerus Willd., Sonchus laevis Vill., Sonchus laevis Garsault [Illegitimate], Sonchus laevis camer. ex Sch.Bip., Sonchus longifolius Trevir., Sonchus longifolius Trev., Sonchus macrotus Fenzl [Invalid], Sonchus pallescens Panc., Sonchus pallescens Pančić, Sonchus parviflorus Lej. ex Rchb., Sonchus reversus E.Mey. ex DC., Sonchus rivularis Phil., Sonchus roseus Besser ex Spreng., Sonchus royleanus DC., Sonchus runcinatus (Fiori) Zenari [Illegitimate], Sonchus schimperi A.Braun & Bouché, Sonchus schmidianus K.Koch, Sonchus spinulifoius Sennen, Sonchus subbipinnatifidus (Guss.) Zenari, Sonchus sundaicus Blume, Sonchus tenerrimus Schur [Illegitimate], Sonchus umbellifer Thunb., Sonchus zacinthoides DC. [1]

Vernacular Name

English Common sow thistle [2]
China Ku cai, ku ju cai, ku tsai, tu [3]
India Aakadiyo, akadiyo, chopalu, dodak, dudhali-sonki, dudhi, dudhkani, dugdhpani, khomthokpi, mhatara, mhatara, naayi hakkarike, omazeze, panu aag, pathari, rathrinta, ratrinta, titaliya, ucittakarai [3]
Indonesia Empuh wiyang, delgiyu (Javanese); camawak (Sundanese) [2]
Philippines Gagatang (Igorot) [2]
Vietnam Rau di[ees]p d[aj]i, nh[ux] c[us]c, rau c[us]c s[uwx]a [2]
Japan No-geshi, maafa [3]
Saudi Arabia Difef, galawein, godeid, tifef [3]
Africa Apuruku, ekijwamate, ekinnyahwa, ekinyamate, kakovu, lapuku, mahiu, orunyamate, riroria, shunga pwapwa (East); gewone syndissel, melkdissel, pypdisel, seidissel, suigdissel, tuindissel, wilde latuw, mahondzo, khondo, lehondo (Southern); lesabe (South Sotho); bonosa-lekhoaba (Sotho); ihahabe (Zulu); ihlaba (Xhosa); ingabe (Swati); lesese (Pedi); shashe (Venda) [3]
France Laitron commun [2]
Peru Achcana, canacho, cerraja, eskana, kanapako, llampu-ccjana [3]
Hawaii Pualele [3]
Maori Pororua, puwha, puwha pororua, rauriki, tawheke, tiotio [3].

Geographical Distributions

The genus Sonchus is of Old World origin and is widely distributed. Sonchus oleraceus are cosmopolitan weeds, occurring from the Arctic zone to the tropics. [2]

The wide distribution of S. oleraceus is proof of its great ecological adaptability. Gardens and cultivated terrains in humid to subhumid areas is its normal habitat. S. asper prefers a slightly cooler and more humid environment than S. oleraceus. It has no specific edaphic requirements. S. oleraceus usually flower and fruit year-round. [2]

Botanical Description

S. oleraceus is a member of the family Compositae. It is an annual or biennial, branched herb and measures up to 140 cm tall. [2]

The cauline leaves are variable in outline, with a size of measure about 8-35 cm x 4-17 cm and entire to pinnatipartite. The lobes are entire, dentate or spiny. There are about 80-230 flowers per head. The involucral bracts are about 30. The measuring of 6 mm petal tube is as long as the ligule. [2]

The achene (fruit) is rough, oblanceolate in shape, with a size of measure about 2.5-3.75 mm x 0.75-1 mm and with 2-4 main ribs on each side. The pappus is about two times as long as the achene and it is subpersistent. [2]

Cultivation

No documentation

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

994

 

Figure 1: The line drawing of S. oleraceus [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver 1.1. 2012-02-11 http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/gcc-26069
  2. Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L. In: Siemonsma JS, Piluek K, editors. Plant resources of South-East Asia No 8: Vegetables. Wagenigen, Netherlands: Pudoc; 1994.
  3. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms and etymology; Volume V R-Z. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2012. p. 338.