Sphaeranthus indicus L.

Last updated: 13 August 2015

Scientific Name

Sphaeranthus indicus L.

Synonyms             

Sphaeranthus hirtus Willd., Sphaeranthus mollis Roxb., Sphaeranthus mollis Roxb. ex DC. [1]

Vernacular Name

English East Indian globe thistle [2], Indian globe thistle [3]
India Adaca-manjen, adakkamanian, adakkamaniyan, adakumaniyam, adike kasa, alambusa, anantai, aruna, atakka-mani, atakkamaniyan, atakkamaniyen, attakkamanni, avyatha, badathaarguyi, barasavodi, belaunja, bettukarande, bhikshu, bhikshugparivraji, bhui kadam, bukadamba, bhukadambika, bjukanda, bhumikadamba, bhutagni, boda, boda savamu, boda-tarapu, bodadaraga, bodasaramu, bodasoram, bodatarapu, bodathara, bodatharamu, bodatharapu chettu, boddatarapu, bodio, bodtalam, bodtalla, bodu kadale, bodu kadalae soppu, boedatarapu-chettu, boladaraga, bondathhara, camani, cenkottaikkarantai, chagulnadi, chandikasa, chhitragranthika, chagulnadi, chandikasa, ciravani, citapiriyam, citapiriyam, citaranam, cittakanni, civa karantai, civanmuticelvi, civappukkottaikkarantai, cukantini, dabpuro, ghorkmundi, gondrilota, gorak mundi, gorakh mundi, gorakh mundi, gorakhamundee, gorakhmundi, gorakhmundi, gorakmundi, gorukmondi, guddari, gul-e-mundi, gul mundi, gundi, habaqbaq, hapusa, jita, kadambapushpa, kadambapushpika, kadambapuspi, kallakaraki, kallakarakicceti, kamadariyus, kamaduriyus, kamaz ariyus, kamazarius, kamzariyus, kamazariyus, karanda, karandagida, karandai, karantai, kirantini, kiriya bodandara, koirab, kotalikkarabtai, kotarikkarantai, kottai-k-karantai, kottai karandhai, kottainalam, kottaippalai, kottaippamiracetti, kottang karundei, kumbhala, kutanara, kulatti, lochani, lotani, mahasvranika, mahasravani, mahamundi, mirangani, minanggani, molelkusir, moodugattina gida, mundakhya, munde gida, mundee, mundeekasa, mundi, mundirika, munditika, mundu, munmani, muntani, mundikasa, palankasha, pallatarini, pani kadambo, parimali, parivraji, shrabani, tattai, varasbodi, visnukkarantai, vridha, zirr-el-vard [3]
Indonesia Sembung, ki heuleut (Sun­danese); brincil (Javanese) [2][3]
Thailand Matom suea [2]
Laos Khi khoay (Louang-Prabang) [2]
Vietnam C[us]c ch[aa]n v[ij]t, c[or] tr[uws]ng v[ij]t [2]
Tibet A dam bi I me tog, ka dam pa I me tog (p), ka dam oai me tog (p) [3].

Geographical Distributions

Sphaeranthus indicus is originated from India, and is now spreading throughout the Old World trop­ics, including China, Malaysia and Australia, as a weed. It is not recorded in Borneo, the Moluc­cas or Papua New Guinea. [2]

S. indicus is abun­dant in damp situations, ascending to an altitude of about 1500 m, especially as a weed in and along (fallowed) rice fields, along ditches, often in groups, especially on heavy soils. In Java, it flow­ers from May to February, while in India from Septem­ber to March. [2]

Botanical Description

S. indicus is a member of the family Compositae. It is an annual, sticky-glandular, hairy herb that can grow up to 30-60 cm tall. The stem is divaricately branched especially in the top part. [2]

The leaves are obo­vate-oblong, measure 1-8 cm x 0.5-2.5 cm, with serrate margins and irregularly serrate wings. [2]

The glomerule is spherical-ellip­soid, 12-15 mm across and with ovate receptacle. There are about 20 involu­cral bracts, which are lance-shaped, whitish, and purple-­tipped, while the upper half is densely hairy. The heads are small and numerous on very short secondary receptacles. There are 13-17 bracts, which are linear, 3 mm long, hairy and glandu­lar. [2]

There are 10-13 marginal flowers, with petal 2-3 mm long, 2-3-dentate, and with 3(-5) disk flowers, with flask-­shaped petal, with the lower part becomes swollen, hardened and persistent at maturity, 1 mm across,  narrowly cylindrical at the upper part, glandular, 3 mm long, 5-dentate, and with purple flowers. The achenes of the marginal flowers are ovoid-oblong, 4-5-angled, with hairy an­gles and brown, while achenes of the disk flowers are obconical, 4-5-angled, smooth or hairy. [2]

Cultivation

No documentation

Chemical Constituent

No documentation

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Traditional Use

No documentation

Preclinical Data

No documentation

Clinical Data

No documentation

Dosage

No documentation

Poisonous Management

No documentation

Line drawing

1001

Figure 1: The line drawing of S. indicus [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver 1.1. Sphaeranthus indicus L. [homepage on the Internet]. c203. [updated on 2012 Feb 11; cited on 2015 Aug 18]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/gcc-113632
  2. Jansen PCM. Sphaeranthus indicus L. In: Oyen LPA, Nguyen Xuan Dung, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 19: Essential-oil plants. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publication: 1999. p. 183.
  3. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume V R-Z. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2012. p. 366-367.