Tabernaemontana pandacaqui Lam.

Last updated: 1 Sep 2015

Scientific Name

Tabernaemontana pandacaqui Lam.


Alstonia pacifica (Seem.) A.C.Sm., Anartia recurva Miers, Ervatamia angustisepala (Benth.) Domin, Ervatamia benthamiana Domin, Ervatamia biflora (Elmer) Pichon, Ervatamia brachybotrys (Merr.) Pichon, Ervatamia calcicola Kerr, Ervatamia capsicoides (Merr.) Pichon, Ervatamia cumingiana (A.DC.) Markgr., Ervatamia daemeliana Domin, Ervatamia decaisnei (A.DC.) Markgr., Ervatamia ecarinata (Merr.) Pichon, Ervatamia eriophora Markgr., Ervatamia floribunda (Blume) Pichon, Ervatamia hexagona (Merr.) Pichon, Ervatamia lifuana Boiteau & L.Allorge, Ervatamia linearifolia (Merr.) Markgr., Ervatamia merrilliana Markgr., Ervatamia mindorensis (Merr.) Markgr., Ervatamia montensis S.Moore, Ervatamia mucronata (Merr.) Markgr., Ervatamia obtusiuscula Markgr., Ervatamia oligantha (Merr.) Pichon, Ervatamia orientalis (R.Br.) Domin, Ervatamia pandacaqui (Lam.) Pichon, Ervatamia parviflora Meijer Drees, Ervatamia polygama (Blanco) Markgr., Ervatamia puberula Tsiang & P.T.Li, Ervatamia pubescens (R.Br.) Domin, Ervatamia punctulata (Warb.) Markgr., Ervatamia rotensis Kaneh., Ervatamia subglobosa (Merr.) Pichon, Pagiantha oligantha (Merr.) Markgr., Pagiantha pandacaqui (Lam.) Markgr., Pagiantha subglobosa (Merr.) Markgr., Rejoua pacifica (Seem.) Markgr., Tabernaemontana arborescens Perrier, Tabernaemontana biflora Elmer, Tabernaemontana brachybotrys Merr., Tabernaemontana capsicoides Merr., Tabernaemontana caudata Merr., Tabernaemontana cerniflora Zipp. ex Span. [Invalid], Tabernaemontana citrifolia G.Forst. [Illegitimate], Tabernaemontana congestiflora Elmer, Tabernaemontana cumingiana A.DC., Tabernaemontana decaisnei A.DC., Tabernaemontana diclinis K.Schum. & Lauterb., Tabernaemontana ebracteata R.Br., Tabernaemontana ecarinata Merr., Tabernaemontana floribunda Blume, Tabernaemontana guangdongensis P.T.Li, Tabernaemontana hexagona Merr., Tabernaemontana indica Lam., Tabernaemontana laurifolia Blanco [Illegitimate], Tabernaemontana laxiflora Teijsm. & Binn., Tabernaemontana linearifolia Merr., Tabernaemontana mindanaensis Merr., Tabernaemontana mindorensis Merr., Tabernaemontana mollis Hook. & Arn., Tabernaemontana mucronata Merr., Tabernaemontana multiflora Sm., Tabernaemontana oligantha Merr., Tabernaemontana orientalis R.Br., Tabernaemontana pacifica Seem., Tabernaemontana parviflora Decne. [Illegitimate], Tabernaemontana polygama Blanco, Tabernaemontana puberula Merr., Tabernaemontana pubescens Teijsm. & Binn. [Invalid], Tabernaemontana pubescens R.Br., Tabernaemontana punctulata Warb., Tabernaemontana riedeliana Miq., Tabernaemontana rotensis (Kaneh.) P.T.Li, Tabernaemontana semperflorens Perrier, Tabernaemontana subglobosa Merr., Tabernaemontana thailandensis P.T.Li, Tabernaemontana vitiensis Seem. [1]

Vernacular Name

English Banana bush, windmill bush [2]
China Ping mai gou ya hua [3]
Thailand Put farang (Bangkok); phut tum (Northern) [2][4]
Philippines Kampupot (Tagalog); pandakaki (Tagalog, Bisaya, Pampangan) [2][4]; alibutbut (Bisaya, Pampangan, Bikol); tunkal, salibukbuk, alibotbot (Panay Bisaya); busbusilak, kuribetbet (Iloko); agtimaloi, halibutbut, pandaya, talanisog, toar (Bikol); kudibetbet (Igorot); kukabulau-buntai (Ibanag) [2]
Papua New Guinea Oru (Rulu, Central Province); karaban (Nyamikum, Sepik) [4].

Geographical Distributions

Tabernaemontana pandacaqui is distributed from Thailand and Southern Taiwan throughout the Philippines to Sabah, from East Java and Sulawesi eastwards throughout New Guinea into the Pacific and Northern and Eastern Australia. [4]

T. pandacaqui is found in forests or bushes, often on limestones from sea level up to 1800 m altitude. [4]

Botanical Description

T. pandacaqui is a member of the family Apocynaceae. It is a shrub or small tree that can grow up to 1-14 m tall. The trunk is measures up to 20 cm in diametre. [4]

The leaves are elliptical to narrowly elliptical, measure (1.5-)3-25 cm x (0.4-) 1-10 cm and 1.7-4(7) times longer than wide. The apex is obtuse or sometimes rounded. The secondary veins are usually pale green on both sides while the petiole is 3-20 mm long. [4]

The inflorescence is rather lax or more or less congested, measures 3-11 cm x 3-16 cm and 1-many-flowered. The flowers are slightly or not scented and open during the day. The sepals are pale green, while the corolla is in mature bud 10-31 mm long with a comparatively wide subglobose or mostly broadly ovoid head which is 15-40% of the bud length. The apex is blunt or rounded, and the tube is 3.7-11 times longer than the calyx, 8-22 mm long, 0.25-0.5 turn or not twist­ed just below the anthers. [4]

The fruit consists of 2 separate mericarps. They are obliquely ellipsoid or nearly globular, with 1 adaxial and 1-2 lateral ridges or wings, orange, red or yel­low and 2-40-seeded. [4]


T. pandacaqui produces flowers and fruits throughout the year. In the Philippines, flowering peaks from March to June and fruiting from September to November. In Papua New Guinea, flowering peaks in March and from November to December while fruiting in January and September. [4]

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

No documentation.

Preclinical Data

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.


No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing


Figure 1: The line drawing of T. pandacaqui [4]


  1. The Plant List.  Ver1.1. Tabernaemontana pandacaqui Lam.[homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2015 Aug 19]. Available from:
  2. Philippine Medicinal Plants. Pandakaking-puti. Tabernaemontana pandacaqui Poir. [homepage on the Internet]. no date [updated 2013 Dec; cited 2015 Sep 28] Available from:
  3. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume V R-Z. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2012. p. 488-489.
  4. Chua LSL, Horsten SFAJ. Tabernaemontana pandacaqui Poir. In: van Valkenburg JLCH, Bunyapraphatsara N, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(2): Medicinal and poisonous plants 2. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 2001; p. 535-536.