Terminalia citrina Roxb. ex Fleming

Last updated: 1 Sep 2015

Scientific Name

Terminalia citrina Roxb. ex Fleming


Terminalia manii King [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia jelawai belang rimau, antoi puteh (Peninsular); talisai jambu (Sabah) [2]; belawan, kayu rajah, antoi, pokok belang rimau [3]
India Chaluka-araung, cheluka-araung, meng-curi-araung [4]
Indonesia Blabah (Javanese); tengeh caah (Sundanese); mertaki   (Sumatra) [2]
Thailand Samo-dingu (Central); samo-muak, samo-liam (Peninsular) [2]; samaw di ngu, samaw liem, samaw muk [3]
Philippines binggas (General); apunga (Tagalog); bungras (Bikol) [2].

Geographical Distributions

Terminalia citrina is distributed from India and Burma (Myanmar) towards Thailand and throughout Malesia except for New Guinea. [2]

T. citrina occurs scattered but usually frequent in lowland forest and along seashores, up to 200 m altitude. [2]

Botanical Description

T. citrina is a member of the family Combretaceae. It is a medium-sized to fairly large tree that can reach up to measure 40 m tall. The bole is up to measure 210 cm in diametre and usually with small buttresses up to measure 3 m high. The bark surface is smooth and scaly with large thin scales, fawn and brown or greyish-brown in colour. The inner bark is laminated and pink or yellow-brown with a yellow band at the cambium. [2]

The leaves are arranged alternate to opposite, elliptical to oblong-elliptical in shape, with a size of measure about 3-14 cm x 1.8-6.5 cm, rounded to broadly wedge-shaped at the base, pubescent to almost hairless rufous, with 9-12 pairs of secondary veins and 5-25 mm long petiole. [2]

The flowers are in an axillary or terminal panicle of measuring 3-6 cm long. The sepal tube is hairless outside. [2]

The fruit is 5-angled, ellipsoid to slightly spherical in shape, with a size of measure about 2-3 cm x 0.8-2 cm and smooth. [2]


No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

No documentation.

Preclinical Data

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.


No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing


Figure 1: The line drawing of T. citrina [2]


  1. The Plant List.  Ver1.1. Terminalia citrina Roxb. ex Fleming[homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; cited 2015 Aug 19]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2431490
  2. Lemmens RHMJ, Soerianegara I, Wong WC, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No.5(2): Timber trees: Minor Commercial Timbers. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers; 1995.
  3. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research. Compendium of medicinal plants used in Malaysia. Volume 2. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR; 2002. p. 383.
  4. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Volume V R-Z. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2012. p. 531.