Tetrameles nudiflora R. Br.

Last updated: 3 September 2015

Scientific Name

Tetrameles nudiflora R. Br.

Synonyms

Anictoclea grahamiana Nimmo, Tetrameles grahamiana (Nimmo) Wight, Tetrameles grahamiana var. ceylanica A. DC., Tetrameles rufinervis Miq. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Mengkundor (Peninsular) [2]
English Tetrameles [2]
China Si shu mu [4]
India Awek, bhelu, bol bok, bolu, bolur, bondaale, bondsa, cheeni, chini, cini, dumbong, erimali, erimalu, ernal, jermalu, jiraal, jugnli dungy, kaadu bende, kadbende, kadubende, kapong, kapsin, pag-araung, pakparaung, piyai, piyei, pontham cheeni, sidhom, sompong, thingdawl, ugada, vellacheeni, velacini, vellapacca, vellapasa, vellapassa, yermal [4]
Indonesia Binong (Sundanese); kayu tabu (Palembang, Sumatra); winong (Javanese) [2]; Ganggangan (Javanese) [3]
Thailand Bueng (Northern); ka phong (Central, Peninsular); som phong (South-eastern) [2] Pong, kapong, ka pong [3]
Laos Phoung, 'sa phoung [2]
Myanmar Baing, sawbya, thitpok [2]
Vietnam D[aw]ng, daoleo, thung [2].

Geographical Distributions

Tetrameles is monotypic and occurs from Sri Lanka and India to Burma (Myanmar), Indochina, Southern China, Thailand, Northern Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra (extreme north and extreme south), Java, Sulawesi, the Lesser Sunda Islands, New Guinea and Northern Australia (Queensland). [2]

T. nudiflora is found scattered but is fairly common in primary or secondary, deciduous forests up to 500(-1000) m altitude. It is restricted to regions with a more or less pronounced dry season. It is common in teak forests and prefers dry, sandy to rocky soils; in Papua New Guinea, it prefers limestone. [2]

Botanical Description

T. nudiflora is a member of the family Datiscaceae. It is a deciduous, dioecious, medium-sized to large tree that can reach up to 50 m tall. Its bole is columnar, branchless for up to 35 m, measuring up to 120(-200) cm in diametre, and often fluted or with steep buttresses that are up to 5 m high. The bark is smooth, often with blister-like prominences, sometimes hoop-marked and silvery grey to brownish. The inner bark is finely fibrous and ochreous. [2]

The leaves are arranged spirally, simple, dentate to nearly entire, palmately veined, rounded to cordate at the base and exstipulate. [2]

The flowers are in a terminal, fasciculate, pendent, simple or little-branched spike (male) or panicle (female). The petals are absent. The male flower is 4-merous. The sepal is with a short tube. There are 4 stamens that are inserted on the cup-shaped receptacle. The female flower is 4-5-merous where the base of sepal is connate with the ovary. The ovary is inferior and 1-locular with many ovules. The styles are opposite the sepal lobes and with a groove and oblique stigmatic apex. [2]

The fruit is a globular capsule with an apical pore between the persistent styles. The seed is narrowly oblong. Seedling is with epigeal germination. The leafy cotyledons are emergent while the hypocotyl is elongated. All leaves are arranged spirally. [2]

Cultivation

No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

No documentation.

Preclinical Data

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Dosage

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

1036

Figure 1: The line drawing of T. nudiflora [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver 1.1. Tetrameles nudiflora R. Br. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013. [updated on 2012 Apr 18; cited 2015 Aug 28]. Available from : http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/tro-50171044
  2. Tetrameles nudiflora R. Br. In: Sosef MSM, Hong LT, Prawirohatmodjo S, editors. Plant resources of South-East Asia No 5(3): Lesser known timbers. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers; 1998.
  3. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research. Compendium of medicinal plants used in Malaysia, Volume 2. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR; 2002. p. 385.
  4. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms and etymology; Volume V R-Z. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2012. p. 540