Trachyspermum roxburghianum (DC.) H. Wolff

Last updated: 3 September 2015

Scientific Name

Trachyspermum roxburghianum (DC.) H. Wolff


Apium involucratum Roxb., Carum stictocarpum C.B.Clarke, Pimpinella involucrata (Roxb.) Wight & Arn., Ptychotis involucrata (Roxb.) Lindl., Ptychotis roxburghiana DC., Trachyspermum involucratum (Roxb.) H. Wolff, Trachyspermum stictocarpum (C.B. Clarke) H. Wolff. [1]

Vernacular Name

China Dian nan cao guo qin [3]
India Acamata, acatti, acuvam, ajamoda, ajmot, ajumoda, ashamtagam, ashmata-omam, evankam, evarakan, gandhini, homam, kharasva, kokirkentan, navanitam, okatotikacceti, okatotikam, okkam, omam, omamu, panrukam, pucavan, randhuni, sat ajwaen, somura, tipayam, titcaratcini, vamu, vanikam, voma, vovo [3]
Indonesia Surage (Sundanese); pletikapu (Javanese); renggireng (Aceh) [2]
Thailand Phakchi-lom (Kanchanaburi) [2]
Philippines Kanuikui (Manobo); malungkoi (Subanun) [2]
Vietnam Hoa kh[oof]m [2].

Geographical Distributions

Trachyspermum roxburghianum is a cultigen of unknown origin, but it occurs cultivated and subspontaneous (but not naturalised) throughout South and Southeast Asia. In West Java, surage is probably a disappearing crop and it has been found cultivated only in home gardens and upland fields in a very restricted area around Cileungsi and Kalapanunggal (Bogor Regency). [2]

In Southeast Asia, T. roxburghianum is grown on a small scale in home gardens, in flower pots, on drained rice fields, and in upland fields, up to about 750 m altitude. It seems to prefer not too heavy, fertile, calcareous soils. [2]

Botanical Description

T. roxburghianum is a member of the family Umbelliferae. It is an annual, erect, aromatic herb that can grow 15-90 cm tall. The stem is striate, nearly smooth and usually much branched. [2]

The leaves are arranged alternately and pinnately compound. The sheathing petiole is up to 1.5 cm long. The blade is ternately pinnate or 1-2-pinnate, ovate-lance-shaped in outline, measuring 3-8 cm x 1-3 cm, with pinnatifid to pinnatipartite segments (leaflets) which are linear and measuring 0.3-3 cm x 1-3 mm. Those of the upper leaves are gradually becoming nearly slender. [2]

The inflorescence is regular, terminal or axillary and with a compound umbel. The peduncle is 2-8 cm long. There are 2-5 involucral bracts which are 3-10 mm long, linear-lance-shaped and acute while there are also 2-9 primary rays 1-3.5 cm long. In addition, there are 5-8 involucral bractlets which are slender, measuring 2-3 mm long and finely ciliate. The 5-15 secondary rays (pedicels) are 2-7 mm long. The 5 sepal teeth are small or obscure and hardly 0.1 mm long. There are 5 petals, which are obcordate with broadly-inflexed obtuse apices, measuring about 1.3 mm x 0.8 mm, white or greenish-white and hirsute. Five radiating stamens are present. The pistil is with a compressed, glandular hairy ovary, and with 2 deflexed styles that arise from a conical stylopodium where each style ends in a semi-spherical stigma. [2]

The fruit is a laterally flattened, ovoid to nearly spherical schizocarp, measuring 1-2.5 mm x 1-2 mm, and rather densely covered with short, thick and white hairs. It easily splits into 2 and with one-seeded mericarps. The mericarp is convex dorsally, ventrally flat, and with 5 prominent longitudinal ribs that alternate with furrows of 3 undulating oil ducts (usually 1 large and 2 smaller ones) and 2 oil ducts on the commissural side. [2]

The seed is with testa adnate to the mericarp wall. [2]


No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

No documentation.

Preclinical Data

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.


No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing


Figure 1: The line drawing of T. roxburghianum [2]


  1. The Plant List. Ver 1.1. Trachyspermum roxburghianum (DC.) H. Wolff. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated on 2012 Apr 18; cited 2015 Sep 3]. Available from:
  2. Siemonsma JS, Jansen PCM. Trachyspermum roxburghianum (DC.) H. Wolff In: de Guzman CC and Siemonsma JS, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 13: Spices. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher: 1999; p. 223-225.
  3. Quattrocchi U. CRC World dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms and etymology. Volume V R-Z, CRC Press; 2012. p. 599.