Trachyspermum roxburghianum (DC.) H. Wolff

Last updated: 3 September 2015

Scientific Name

Trachyspermum roxburghianum (DC.) H. Wolff

Synonyms

Apium involucratum Roxb., Carum stictocarpum C.B.Clarke, Pimpinella involucrata (Roxb.) Wight & Arn., Ptychotis involucrata (Roxb.) Lindl., Ptychotis roxburghiana DC., Trachyspermum involucratum (Roxb.) H. Wolff, Trachyspermum stictocarpum (C.B. Clarke) H. Wolff. [1]

Vernacular Name

China Dian nan cao guo qin [3]
India Acamata, acatti, acuvam, ajamoda, ajmot, ajumoda, ashamtagam, ashmata-omam, evankam, evarakan, gandhini, homam, kharasva, kokirkentan, navanitam, okatotikacceti, okatotikam, okkam, omam, omamu, panrukam, pucavan, randhuni, sat ajwaen, somura, tipayam, titcaratcini, vamu, vanikam, voma, vovo [3]
Indonesia Surage (Sundanese); pletikapu (Javanese); renggireng (Aceh) [2]
Thailand Phakchi-lom (Kanchanaburi) [2]
Philippines Kanuikui (Manobo); malungkoi (Subanun) [2]
Vietnam Hoa kh[oof]m [2].

Geographical Distributions

Trachyspermum roxburghianum is a cultigen of unknown origin, but it occurs cultivated and subspontaneous (but not naturalised) throughout South and Southeast Asia. In West Java, surage is probably a disappearing crop and it has been found cultivated only in home gardens and upland fields in a very restricted area around Cileungsi and Kalapanunggal (Bogor Regency). [2]

In Southeast Asia, T. roxburghianum is grown on a small scale in home gardens, in flower pots, on drained rice fields, and in upland fields, up to about 750 m altitude. It seems to prefer not too heavy, fertile, calcareous soils. [2]

Botanical Description

T. roxburghianum is a member of the family Umbelliferae. It is an annual, erect, aromatic herb that can grow 15-90 cm tall. The stem is striate, nearly smooth and usually much branched. [2]

The leaves are arranged alternately and pinnately compound. The sheathing petiole is up to 1.5 cm long. The blade is ternately pinnate or 1-2-pinnate, ovate-lance-shaped in outline, measuring 3-8 cm x 1-3 cm, with pinnatifid to pinnatipartite segments (leaflets) which are linear and measuring 0.3-3 cm x 1-3 mm. Those of the upper leaves are gradually becoming nearly slender. [2]

The inflorescence is regular, terminal or axillary and with a compound umbel. The peduncle is 2-8 cm long. There are 2-5 involucral bracts which are 3-10 mm long, linear-lance-shaped and acute while there are also 2-9 primary rays 1-3.5 cm long. In addition, there are 5-8 involucral bractlets which are slender, measuring 2-3 mm long and finely ciliate. The 5-15 secondary rays (pedicels) are 2-7 mm long. The 5 sepal teeth are small or obscure and hardly 0.1 mm long. There are 5 petals, which are obcordate with broadly-inflexed obtuse apices, measuring about 1.3 mm x 0.8 mm, white or greenish-white and hirsute. Five radiating stamens are present. The pistil is with a compressed, glandular hairy ovary, and with 2 deflexed styles that arise from a conical stylopodium where each style ends in a semi-spherical stigma. [2]

The fruit is a laterally flattened, ovoid to nearly spherical schizocarp, measuring 1-2.5 mm x 1-2 mm, and rather densely covered with short, thick and white hairs. It easily splits into 2 and with one-seeded mericarps. The mericarp is convex dorsally, ventrally flat, and with 5 prominent longitudinal ribs that alternate with furrows of 3 undulating oil ducts (usually 1 large and 2 smaller ones) and 2 oil ducts on the commissural side. [2]

The seed is with testa adnate to the mericarp wall. [2]

Cultivation

No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

No documentation.

Preclinical Data

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Dosage

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

1050

Figure 1: The line drawing of T. roxburghianum [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver 1.1. Trachyspermum roxburghianum (DC.) H. Wolff. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated on 2012 Apr 18; cited 2015 Sep 3]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/tro-1703466
  2. Siemonsma JS, Jansen PCM. Trachyspermum roxburghianum (DC.) H. Wolff In: de Guzman CC and Siemonsma JS, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 13: Spices. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher: 1999; p. 223-225.
  3. Quattrocchi U. CRC World dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms and etymology. Volume V R-Z, CRC Press; 2012. p. 599.