Vernonia arborea Buch.-Ham.

Last updated: 1 September 2015

Scientific Name

Vernonia arborea Buch.-Ham.

Synonyms

Conyza acuminata Wall. [Invalid], Flustula tomentosa Raf. [Illegitimate], Gymnanthemum acuminatum Steetz, Leucomeris glabra Blume ex DC. [Invalid], Leucomeris javanica Blume ex DC. [Invalid], Vernonia arborea var. arborea, Vernonia arborea var. blumeana (DC.) Koord. & Valeton, Vernonia arborea var. glabra Koord. & Valeton, Vernonia blumeana DC., Vernonia florescens Elmer, Vernonia urdanetense Elmer, Vernonia vaniotii H.Lév., Vernonia wallichii Ridl. [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Gambong, menggambong (Peninsular); tapong-tapong (Sabah) [2]; Merambong bukit, berambong bukit, berambong, medang gambong, bunga champa paya, bunga champat, jangkang paya, temangau, tampang besi, hampas tebu, tetepong, kedenok [3], kayu kepialu, entepong (Sarawak) [4]
English Tree vemonia [2]
Indonesia Nangi (Bali); sembang kuwuk [2], dedek, Sembung, sembung dedek, sembung gede, sembung gilang (Javanese); Hambirung (Sundanese); Marambueng (Sumatran) [3]
Thailand Chuang, kaphuam maphrao, nuan paeng (Peninsular) [2]
Philippines Malasambong gubat (General) [2].

Geographical Distributions

Vernonia arborea is distributed from India and Sri Lanka through Indo-China and Southern China towards Thailand and throughout the Malaysian region. [2]

V. arborea is locally common in secondary forest, along roadsides and also in fields with alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeuschel). It is found from lowland to lower montane habitats up to 2200(-3000) m altitude. In the Philippines it occurs in dipterocarp forest. In mountains in East Java V. arborea is conspicuous in the succession to mixed oak-laurel forest. [2]

Botanical Description

V. arborea is comes from the family Compositae. It is an evergreen herb, shrub, climber or rarely small to medium-sized tree that can reach up to 30(-40) m tall, with its bole is up to 60(-100) cm in diametre and with short buttresses. [2]

The bark surface is becoming closely narrowly fissured or scaly, dark grey to brown. The inner bark is fibrous, pale brown to orange-brown and turning darker or purplish upon exposure. [2]

The leaves are arranged spirally, simple, entire and glandular below. [2]

The inflorescence is terminal or in the upper leaf axils, consisting of widely branched panicles of heads. The head is with 5-6 white flowers, which are much longer than the involucre. The involucre is bell-shaped. Receptacle is naked. The petal is tubular with a bell-shaped to funnel-shaped limb. The anthers are with arrowhead-shaped base. [2]

The 3-angled fruit is a ribbed, 1-seeded fruit which is flattened on two sides and rounded on the third. The pappus is hairy, usually 2- or rarely 1-seriate and it is scabrous. [2]

Cultivation

No documentation.

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

No documentation.

Preclinical Data

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Dosage

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

1064

Figure 1: The line drawing of V. arborea [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver 1.1. Vernonia arborea Buch.-Ham. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated on 2012 Feb 11; cited 2015 Sep 4]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/gcc-12592
  2. Vernonia arborea Buch.-Ham. In: Sosef MSM, Hong LT, Prawirohatmodjo S, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5 (3): Timber trees: Lesser-known timbers. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher; 1998.
  3. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research.Compendium of medicinal plants used in Malaysia, Volume 2. Kuala Lumpur: HMRC IMR; 2002. p. 414.
  4. Quattrocchi U. CRC World dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms and etymology; Volume V R-Z. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2012. Pp 721