Zizania latifolia (Griseb.) Turcz. ex Stapf

Last updated: 28 August 2015

Scientific Name

Zizania latifolia (Griseb.) Turcz. ex Stapf 

Synonyms

Hydropyrum latifolium Griseb., Zizania aquatica var. latifolia (Griseb.) Kom., Zizania caduciflora Hand.-Mazz. [Illegitimate], Zizania dahurica Turcz. ex Steud., Zizania mezii Prodoehl. [1]

Vernacular Name

English Manchurian wild rice, Manchurian water rice [2], annual wild rice, Canadian wild rice, southern wild rice, Tuscarora rice, water rice, wild oat [3]
China Ku [3]
Thailand Nomai-nam (Bang­kok); kapek (Southern) [2]
Vietnam C[ur] ni[eex]ng, ni[ee]ng ni[eex]ng, l[us]a mi[ee]u [2]
France Riz sauvage de Mandchourie [2].

Geographical Distributions

Zizania lati­folia is indigenous in north-eastern India, Burma, China, Japan, and in parts of eastern Siberia and the Russian Far East. Primarily used as a cereal in ancient times, its evolution and cultivation as a stem vegetable in China dates back at least to the 10th Century. It is now rather widespread in cul­tivation in eastern and south-eastern Asia (China, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Indo-China, Thailand, Burma, and Malaysia). In Indonesia, it is cultivated lo­cally by Chinese people. It has been introduced in Europe, New Zealand, and North America as well. [2]

The natural habitat of Z. latifolia in­cludes borders of lakes, still-water bays and slow­ running streams. It seems tolerant of a wide range of climatic and soil conditions. [2]

Botanical Description

Z. lati­folia is a member of the family Gramineae. It is an aquatic perennial tillering grass with strong developed rhizomes and stolons and can grow up to 3 m long. The mature rhizome is unbranched, prostrate and with solid apex and nodes. The intern­odes are hollow and divided into chambers by trans­verse membranous septa. The mean external diametre is 2 cm. [2]

The culm is firm, erect, hairless, filled with spongy pith and partitioned in the lower part. It is initially enclosed by the leaves but becomes exposed as the lower leaves die. The apex is solid, measures 0.6 cm long and consists of 1-3 internodes. The remainder of the culm consists of 3 or more hollow internodes where each is about 6 cm long. Each node of the mature culm may give rise to a lateral bud which will de­velop into a shoot. The leaf sheath is loose, ribbed and hairless. The ligule is 2.5 cm, top rounded and bifid. The leaf blade is firm, narrowly linear-lance-shaped, measuring 50­-100 cm x 2-3 cm, long-acuminate, somewhat rough and with very rough margins on both sides. The midrib is stout. [2]

The inflorescence is a panicle which is 40-60 cm long and narrowly pyramidal. The branches are ascending, arranged in pseudowhorls, and with a tuft of long white hairs in the axils. The male spikelets are on the lower part of the panicle. They are lance-shaped, measure 8-12 mm long, usually pur­plish and acute or short-awned. There are 6 stamens. The female spikelets are on the upper part, pale green, linear and measure 15-25 mm. The lemma is oblong, acuminate and very scabrid. The awns are erect, measure 2-3 mm long and scabrous. [2]

The caryopsis is linear-oblongoid and measuring 5 mm x 1 mm. [2]

Cultivation

No documentation

Chemical Constituent

No documentation.

Plant Part Used

No documentation.

Traditional Use

No documentation.

Preclinical Data

No documentation.

Clinical Data

No documentation.

Dosage

No documentation.

Poisonous Management

No documentation.

Line drawing

1080

Figure 1: the line drawing of Z. latifolia [2]

References

  1. The Plant List. Ver 1.1. Zizania latifolia (Griseb.) Turcz. ex Stapf. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated on 2012 Mar 23; 2015 Sept 10]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-450610
  2. Zizania latifolia (Griseb.) Turcz. ex Stapf  In: Siemonsma JS, Piluek K, editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 8. Vegetables. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc Scientific Publishers, 1993.
  3. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms and etymology; Volume V R-Z. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2012. Pp  841