Apium graveolens L.

Last update: 17 November 2014

Scientific Name

Apium graveolens L.

Synonyms

Apium dulce Miller, Apium rapaceum Miller, Apium lusitanicum Miller, Apium celleri Gaertn, Apium decumbens Eckl. & Zeyh, Apium  dulce Mill, Apium graveolens var. bashmensis Hosni, Apium graveolens subsp. butronensis (D.Gomez & G.Monts) Aizpuru, Apium graveolens var. dulce (Mill).DC, Apium graveolens var. usitanicum (Mill.) DC, Apium graveolens f. lusitanicum (Mill.) J.Helm, Apium graveolens var. maritimum Dumort, Apium graveolens subsp. apaceum (Mill.), Apium integrilobum Hayata, Apium lobatum Gilib. [Invalid], Apium lusitanicum Mill, Apium maritimum Salisb., Apium palustre Thore, Apium rapaceum Mill., Apium vulgare Bubani, Carum graveolens (L.) Koso-Pol, Celeria graveolens (L.) Britton, Selinum graveolens (L.) E.H.L.Krause, Seseli graveolens (L.) Scop., Sium apium Roth, Sium graveolens (L.) Vest [1]

Vernacular Name

Malaysia Sadri, selderi, seladeri [2], daun sop [3]  
English Celery, stalk celery, leaf celery [2], celeriac, wild celery [4], marsh parsley, smallage [5]
China Qin, fan qin cai, ch'in-nst'ai [3]
India Ajmod [6]
Indonesia Selederi, saledri,   saladri [2]
Philippines Kinchai, quaichay, kintsay [2]
Cambodia Chii tang' 'ao, kien chhaay [7]
Laos S'ii s'aangz [7]
Thailand Khuen-chai (Central); phak peum, phak khao puen (Northern) [3]
Vietnam Rau c[aat]n t[aa]y [7]
France Celeri cote, celeri branche, celeri rave [8].

Geographical Distributions

Apium graveolens is native to lowland of Italy and it first recorded cultivated was in 1623 in France. Nowadays, there are various types of celery are grown all over the world such as Sweden, Egypt, Algeria, Ethiopia and India. [9] [10]

Botanical Description

A. graveolens is classified as a member of the Apiaceae which once called as Umbelliferae family. It is a biennial plant, erect and growth up to 100 cm tall and it is a glabrous herb. [10]

The stem is thick, erect and long narrow furrow [10]. The stem arises from a large fleshy taproot [11].

The leaves is trilobe, arrange in alternate, long petiole, pinnate at below. As it goes upper, the leave is less sessile [10]. The leaflets is glossy, deltoid-rhomboid leaves with cuneate at the base and 2-5 cm x 1.5-3 cm in dimension. Sheath is present at the base of the leaves [10] [11].

The inflorescence is umbel terminal and lateral, sessile or short-peduncled, primary rays 4-15 [10] [11]. Bract is absent, umbellules up to 25-flowered. The flower is bisexual, pedicel measures 1-5 mm long. Calyx teeth obsolete, the petals is free and ovate to orbicular shape, measures 0.5 mm long with inflexed apex. The colour of petals is greenish-white. The stamen unattached and alternating with petals. The ovary is inferior, 2-celled and have 2 style spreading [10].

The fruit is ovoid and quite broad, globose shizocarp that split into two 1-seeded measures up to 1.5 mm long and distinctly ribbed [10]. The vittae (an oil tube in the carpel wall of the fruit) behaviour in solitary in the intervals and 2 vitta on the commisural face (the face which two carpel join one another) [11].

The seed habit with epigeal germination, 1-2 long hypocotyl, epicotyl absent. [10]

Cultivation

Usage

The celery or A. graveolens seed oil is mainly used in dairy, soups, puddings, condiments and both alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages [12][13]. It is also often used in perfumery uses, as it triggers the warm notes in floral and oriental perfumes and lavender bouquets and some of the others perfume. There are non-scientific evidence based about the aromatherapeutic benefit but massage the oil itself had given a benefit in many stress condition, muscular and arthritic pain [12].

Soil Suitability and Climate Requirement

The A. graveolens seed entirely produced in temperate areas and was imported to Africa. The seed that produced in highlands of East Africa can produce a heat-tolerant types of celery stalk compared to the seed that harvested from tropical climate. [10]

Field Preparation

Production of Planting Materials

The A. graveolens seed is soaked first by the farmers for one or two days before sowing. It is better to mix the sand with fine seed and do not keep the mixture dry until the very first root tips appear. The root tips are white in colour. This seedling must be kept in moist and frequent watering until it had clearly emerged. This stage will take about one month for A. graveolens leaf and 6-10 weeks for its stalk. [10]

Field Planting

In order to yield a good quality of A. graveolens plant, organic manure is a good medium for seedling to be a healthy celery plant. The seedling must be planted at a spacing of 30 cm in the row and 40 cm length between the rows. [10]

Field maintenance

Fertilisation

A good A. graveolens crop need a large amount of nutrient as the removal of nutrient in 20 t/ha of celery stalk is estimated 75 kg N, 17 kg P, 140 kg K, 36 kg Ca and 11 kg Mg. Celery plant is very sensitive to physiological disorder, which can be cure by 10-20 kg/ha of borax and 100 kg/ha of magnesium sulphate applies on the soil of the crop. [10]

Weed Control

The weed problem can be minimized if mulching is applied around the planting point and soil surface. Mulching the soil also helps maintaining the moisture of the plant itself. [10]

Pest and Disease Control

In a humid condition, a serious late blight disease caused by Septoria apiicola is the most serious problems faced by A. graveolens plant. The leaves will turn into many small pale brown spots with dark at the centre. These problems can be prevented by the proper aeration especially on the rainy season. A wider spacing is required compared to the dry season. [10]

Harvesting

There are many methods in order to harvest A. graveolens plant, either by uprooting or by cutting at ground level. Ratooning is also another method in harvesting; about 5 cm of the A. graveolens plant above ground level is cut and with a several cutting at 3 week intervals. [10]

Postharvest handling

A. graveolens that had been harvested must be removed from the field as soon as possible to be washed, sorted, packed and deposited at the market. A. graveolens stalk can be stored about a month. [10]

Chemical Constituent

The seeds of A. graveolens have been reported to contain 1.5-3 % essential oil, mainly D-limonene (60%), sesquiterpenes (10%), β-selinene and humulenes; coumarins, flavonoids (e.g. luteolin, apigenin), furocoumarins (e.g. bergapten, xanthotoxin), and phthalides (3%); mainly 3-butylphthalide and traces of 5,6-dihydro derivative sedanenolide. [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20]

Steam distillation of A. graveolens yielded 1.25% (v/w) pale yellow liquid essential oil of density 0.89 g/mL. [21]

Isolation with 70% aqueous methanol extract of celery seed gave the polar constituents consisting of five sesquiterpenoid glucosides, two norcarotenoid glucosides, three phthalide glycosides, six aromatic compound glycosides, and a lignan glucoside. [15]

A dichloromethane extract of celery root yielded polyacetylenes (e.g. falcarinol, falcaridiol, panaxydiol and 8-O-methylfalcarindiol). [22]

Other compounds have been found in A. graveolens are cis-beta-ocimene, gamma-terpinene, senkyunolide, neocnidilide, amino acid (e.g. L-tryptophan), and vitamins (e.g. α-tocopherol). [12] [23][24][25]

Plant Part Used

Aerial parts, seeds. [9][23]

Traditional Use

A. graveolens has been used traditionally for the treatment of arthritic condition, gout and urinary infections [26]. It is also use to increase the excretion of urine, promotes the menstrual discharge, and against dengue fever and inflammation or pain in muscles or joints [10].

A. graveolens is used in Trinidad and Tobago as a heart tonic and for lowering blood pressure [27]. The Native American tribe, Houma uses this plant with a decoction with Whisky to treat tuberculosis [28]. Besides that, in traditional Chinese medicine, 60-70 g of A. graveolens is prescribed to treat high blood pressure and hypercholesterolemia as a water decoction [29].

Celery seed is used in Ayurveda medicine to treat cold, flu, water retention, poor digestion, various type of arthritis and certain disease of liver and spleen. [9]

Preclinical Data

Pharmacology

Antiparasitic activity

Essential oil extracted from A. graveolens fresh aerial part exhibited toxicity against cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni which is known to cause schistosomiasis in dose-dependent manner which 40 ppm of the essential oil cause 96 % mortality of cercariae. [23]

Larvacidal activity

Essential oil extracted by stem distillation from A. graveolens demonstrated a significant larvacidal activity against two mosquito vectors, namely Aedes aegypti (dengue) and Anopheles dirus (malaria) after 24 hours exposure with LC50 42.07 and 59.44, respectively. [21]

Another study showed potential adulticides of this oil against female laboratory strain and female field strain of A. aegypti with LC50 of 5.96 μg/mg and 6.14 μg/mg, respectively. [22]

Methanol extract of A. graveolens seeds have been shown to possess concentration-dependent mosquitocidal, nematicidal and antifungal activity. Its isolated compound, sedanolide gave 100% mortality at 50 μg/mL on fourth-instar A. aegypti larvae. [31] 

Ethanol crude extract of A. graveolens seeds showed larvicidal activity (LD50 and LD95 values of 81.0 and 176.8 mg/L, respectively), adulticidal activity (LD50 and LD95 values of 6.6 and 66.4 mg/cm2, respectively) and repellency (ED50 and ED95 values of 2.03 and 28.12 mg/cm2, respectively) against dengue mosquito vector A. aegypti after 2.5-3 hours post-topical application of the extract. These properties are particularly pertinent to areas where the mosquito is an established vector for viral infection leading to illnesses such as yellow fever or dengue / dengue haemorrhagic fever and prevention of such infections depends in part on use of insect repellent. [32]

Antioxidant activity

Essential oil of A. graveolens seeds showed high antioxidant activity through its limonene compound (composition, 74.6 %) and demonstrated inhibitory activity against malonaldehyde formation from squalene upon UV-irradiation with 23 % inhibitory effect at the level of 500 µg/mL. [33]

Methanol extract of A. graveolens leaves and roots scavenged the hydroxides and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals and inhibit the liposomal peroxidation. Whilst the n-butanol extract of A. graveolens (1.0 mL/kg intraperitoneally) decreased the glutathion content of carbon tetrachloride treated mice Balb/C (20-28 g) for a duration of 5 days. [34]

Crude extract and several pure compounds of hexane extract of A. graveolens seeds (125 and 250 µg/mL) showed a decent antioxidant activity using liposome oxidation by fluorescence spectroscopy. Meanwhile the isolated compounds also exhibited cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity on prostaglandin H synthase isozymes-I (PGHS-I) from ram seminal vesicles and on human PGHS-II enzyme obtained from cloned insect cell lysate at 250 µg/mL. [18]

Hepatoprotective activity

Methanol extract of A. graveolens seeds (250 mg/kg) administered orally to CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in female Wistar albino rats (100-150 g) against CCl4-induced elevation of serum transaminases and alkaline phosphatase, as well as increased the total protein and albumin level compared to standard drug silymarin. [35]

Methanol extract of A. graveolens seeds (200 mg/kg) given to Porton albino rats (100-150 g) which pre-treated with paracetamol and thioacetamide exhibited a degree of protection against hepatotoxicity in the liver with reduction in the increase of serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum sorbitol dehydrogenase, serum glutamate dehydrogenase   and serum bilirubin levels with proportion of abnormal value of 25 % for paracetamol while 38.1 % for thioacetamide or 75 % and 61.9 % overall protection, respectively. [36]

Sodium valproate-induced reproductive toxicity protective activity

Ethanol extract of A. graveolens seeds (200 mg/kg/day) administered for a duration of 23 days before induced testis injury with sodium valproate (VPA) to male Wistar rats (150-200 g) significantly reduced the reproductive toxicity by protected the reduction of sperm motility, prevent the decrease in absolute and relative weights of epididymis, attenuated the decrease in absolute and relative weights of testes and prevent the increase of FSH serum hormone level. [37]

Antihyperlipidemia activity

Aqueous extract of A. graveolens given orally with high-fat diet to rats reduced total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides compared to control group. [38]

Antinociceptive activity

Ethanol extract of A. graveolens seeds (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) administered orally in mice showed a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect by significantly (p < 0.001) reduced acetic acid-induced writhing with 40 % and 43 % protection, respectively compared to control saline-treated group. In addition, intraperitoneal administration in mice significantly (p < 0.001) increased the latency of mice to response to hot plate-induced thermal stimulation. [39]

Anti-inflammation activity

Both ethanol to water extract (1:1) of A. graveolens var. dulce leaves and its isolated compound, apiin treated on J774.A1 macrophage cell line (stimulated for 24 hours with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide) significantly inhibited the activity of nitrite (NO) production (IC50 0.073 and 0.08 mg/mL) and iNOS expression (IC50 0.095 and 0.049 mg/mL) respectively.. In addition, extract of A. graveolens induced cutaneous otic edema using croton-oil ear test. This extract also showed anti-inflammatory activity in-vivo (ID50 730 µg/cm2) and reduced the expected inflammation with a potency seven-times lower than that of indomethacin (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) (ID50 93 µg/cm2). The activity might have been due to reduction of iNOS enzyme expression. [40]

Antitumour activity

Natural compounds isolated from A. graveolens (3‐n‐butyl phthalide and sedanolide) given to benzo[a]pyrene (BP) induced tumourigenesis mice reduced the tumour incidence to 11% and from 68% to 30% respectively compared to control group. Whilst tumour multiplicity in both treatment groups reduced to 67% and 83% respectively compared to control [15]. In addition, luteolin (flavonoid found in A. graveolens) also induced apoptosis, reduce tumour growth, and even sensitize tumour cells to the effects of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents [14]

Toxicity

Polyacetylenes (falcarinol, falcarindiol, panaxydiol and 8-O-methylfalcarindiol) from dichloromethane extract of A. graveolens root evaluated for cytotoxicity against five different cell lines (CEM-C7H2, a T-ALL cell line (acute lymphoblastic leukemia); U937, a human histiocytic lymphoma cell line; RPMI-8226, a human multiple myeloma cell line; and HRT-18 and HT-2912, colorectal carcinoma cell lines) by the annexin V-PI assay showed that only falcarinol gave a pronounced toxicity against acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cell line CEM-C7H2, with an IC50 of 3.5 µmol/L. [22]

Clinical Data

Clinical findings

Ingestion of A. graveolens stems reported to cause mild allergy and evenanaphylactic reactions. This allergy was reported to be mediated by IgE antibodies but the antigen which binded to IgE could not be determined. [41]

Precautions

Side effects

A. graveolens supplements showed irritating effect on the kidney and metabolism appears to be reduced in elderly patients [42]. Patients who have a history of liver and/or kidney problems should not use A. graveolens unless directed to do so by their medical practitioner.  Ingestion of A. graveolens even at normal doses may inhibit cytochrome extract drug metabolism in patients [43] [44].

Allergic reactions to A. graveolens have been well documented in literature. The symptoms associated this allergy may range in severity; from urticaria and angioedema to symptoms such as anaphylaxis. Furthermore, a cross-sensitivity has been found to exist between pollen allergies and an allergy to A. graveolens. [43] 

Contamination by external stimuli can create a phytoalexin response in A. graveolens that can increase the concentration of certain naturally occurring bioactive substances that can increase to potentially toxic levels, producing photosensitization and photodermatitis. Those working with or around A. graveolens are typically the patients presenting with photodermatitis. [19]

Pregnancy/Breast Feeding

Ingestion of celery seeds by pregnant women is not recommended as it may affect the menstrual cycle and exhibited abortifacient effects [14]. Also, uterine stimulant activity has been documented for celery seed oil [46].

Those who are pregnant or breastfeeding or plan to pregnant should not use A. graveolens due to its uterine stimulation and abortifacient effects. Insufficient information concerning the use of A. graveolens in infants and children; therefore, caution should be exerted regarding the use of any supplementation on them. [42]

Age limitation

The essential oil of A. graveolens is not advisable for infants and young children due to the nature and immaturity of their skin to tolerate with long exposure to sunlights [18]. A. graveolens supplements also shown to have an irritating effect on the kidney and reduced the metabolism in elderly patients [42]

Adverse reaction

A. graveolens is not advisable for people with acute renal disorder. Contact with the stems could lead to photosensitivity due to the presence of furocoumarin constituents such as psoralen. It may sometimes induce allergic reactions. [14]

Consuming excessive amounts of A. graveolens seed oil can induce central nervous system depression [46].

Interaction & Depletion

Interaction with drug

A. graveolens showed interaction with certain drugs such as angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, alcohol, aspirin or beta-blockers by increasing the probability to develop food-induced anaphylactic shock in patients whom hypersensitive to the plant. Patients need to be careful when taking hypotensive drugs such as cholesterol-lowering and diuretics agents because A. graveolens found to have antihypertensive activity too. Thus, consuming both together can possibly cause addictive effect. [47]

Similar precaution should be taken to patients taking seizure medication as A. graveolens may have antispasmodic activity, thus can trigger addictive effect. It also reported to increase the level of certain drugs in the blood by interfering liver's "cytochrome P450" enzyme system processes in the liver. Furthermore, taking aspirin, anticoagulant agents (such as. warfarin and heparin), antiplatelet agents (such as clopidogrel) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (such as ibuprofen and naproxen) together with A. graveolens may increase the risk of bleeding. It also may increase the drowsiness if patients taking certain drugs such as benzodiazepines (such as lorazepam and diazepam), baribiturates (such as phenobarbitol), narcotics (such as codeine), certain antidepressants and alcohol. [47]

Interaction with other herbs

Cautions should be advised for patients taking A. graveolens together with herbs which potentially have hypotensive, cholesterol-lowering, diuretics, anticoagulant, antiplatelet and antispasmodic activity as well as having properties to increase bleeding [47].

Contraindications

Apply A. graveolens seed oil on skin may cause photosensitivity due to the furanocoumarin content [18].

A. graveolens is contraindicated with patients who have pollen allergies, specifically birch [48].

Case Report

No documentation.

Dosage

No documentation.

Dosage Range

No documentation.

Most Common Dosage

No documentation.

Standardization

No documentation.

Poisonous

No documentation.

Line drawing

2

Figure 1: The line drawing of A. graveolens [8].

References

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